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Herb Glossary

English Names: Ashwagandha, Winter Cherry

Botanical Names: Withania Somnifera

Family: Solanaceae Parts Used: Root
HabitatAshwagandha is a small shrub that grows to 1.5 meters tall. It is found in dry areas of India and Africa.

Click here for Ashwagandha 

Energetics: *Rasa (taste): bitter, astringent, sweet * Virya (action): heating * Vipaka (post-digestive effect): sweet * Doshas (constitutions): Balancing for vata and kapha, may aggravate pitta in excess Indications: Ashwagandha is sometimes referred to as Indian Ginseng (see Study below). It has rejuvenative properties that produce energy, which in turn helps the body to calm down and sleep. Thus it helps the body address a stress-related condition rather than masking it with sedatives. Recent research points out that Ashwagandha may be the best herb to take to maintain normal adrenal levels. Many people suffer from adrenal exhaustion and are misdiagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or simply leave the doctors office without a clear understanding as to why they constantly feel so exhausted and stressed. Caffeine, nicotine, processed foods and processed sugar all take their toll on the adrenal glands and leave the victim fatigued, depressed and often bewildered as to what to do with themselves. Ashwagandha helps the adrenals recover quickly to a balanced state, assuming the offending habits are discontinued. One of the special properties of Ashwagandha is that it will enhance Ojas. In Sanskrit, Ojas literally means "vigor" and according to Ayurvedic theory, is the most subtle, refined level of the physical body and, in fact, is its essential energy. Ojas is the sap of one's life energy and is the end result of healthy food which is properly digested. It is responsible for a healthy immune system, reproductive processes, physical strength, lustrous complexion, clarity of mind and sense of well-being. It allows consciousness to flow within the body. With decreased ojas, we are less in touch with ourselves and more prone to weakness, fatigue, disease and to experiencing a sense of disharmony. Ojas depletion can be caused by stress, which triggers stress-fighting hormones and free radicals that in turn cause degeneration of the immune and other physiological systems. This stress-induced reaction can open the way for illness and disease. Ashwagandha is known to protect the body from these stress-related weaknesses and illnesses by specializing in the building of ojas and rejuvenating the body, thus maintaining a healthy balance of physical energies. Ashwagandha can also be a natural anabolic training aid and its use is becoming popular in sports and athletics. When you train hard, you walk a very fine line between overtraining and training just enough. Even in perfect circumstances, training by itself is a stress on the body. To get the maximum performance from your muscles, you require just the right amount of training coupled with appropriate rest and recovery periods. Overtraining means too much cortisol which leads to the consumption of muscle protein by the body and thus performance suffers. Endurance athletes who train heavily, such as long-distance runners and cyclists, are very prone to infections, as excess cortisol produced in response to the heavy training load suppresses the immune system. It can also lead to muscle and tendon tears because the muscles are weakened due to protein loss under the influence of cortisol. With its musclepreserving qualities, Ashwagandha is the perfect natural anabolic training aid for the serious athlete. 

Contraindications: Safe for human and animal use. This herb has been used safely by children in India and even by pregnant women. When taken in small quantities as a tonic. During lactation it increases the flow of mother's milk.

No side effects have been reported with Ashwagandha.

According to Ayurveda herbs are best taken in combination with other herbs or vitamins or minerals in order to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of other and to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the that of the other.

Caution: According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

References:

  • J. Ethnopharmacol 1994 Dec., 44(3):131-5
  • A comparative pharmacological investigation of Ashwagandha and Ginseng.
  • Grandhi A, Mujumdar AM, Patwardhan B.
  • Indian Drugs Research Association, Pune.

English Names: Areca nut, Betel nut, Pinag Botanical Names: Areca catechu
Family: Palmae Parts Used: Seed
Habitat: Cultivated through out tropical India.

Energetics: Dentifries, intoxicant, stimulant, Vermifuge, use to treat Cholera, Colic, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, fatigue, fever, Gastrosis, Gonorrhea, hemituria, Herpes, Hysteria, Malaria, Odontosis, Opthalmia, Rhagades, Rhinosis, scabes, small pox, Stomach ache, tapeworm. Fresh nut is somewhat intoxicating and produces Giddines in some persons. But dried nut is stimulant astringent and taenifuge. It increases the flow of Saliva, lessons perspiration, sweetens the breath. Strength the gum and produces mild Exhilaration. The seed has an aromatic, astringent and somewhat acrid in taste. On account of the readiness with which Arecoline is absorbed, it is not recommended to be used as a taeniacide in pure conditions and therefore the powder nut is preferred. useful in stopping watery discharges from the Vagina, also useful in pyrosis of pregnancy, nervine tonic and emmenagogue, mildly astringent.

References:

  • Trease G.E. and W.C. Evans: Pharmacognosy, Balliere Tindall. East bourne,(1983).
  • Chakravarthy,B.K. et al. :Ind. Drugs,July,397, (1983).
  • Sham,J.S.K. et al. :Planta Med.,50:177, (1983).
  • Aryabhishak (Ed) S. P. Pade,Sastu Sahitya Vardhak Karyalaya , Ahmedabad,(1932).


English Names: Asafoetida

Botanical Names: Ferula Asafoetida Linn
Family: Parts Used: Gum resin of the plant.
Energetics: Indications: 

Contraindications: According to Ayurveda, Herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

English Names: Black Pepper

Botanical Names: Piper Nigrum
Family: Piperaceae Parts Used: Fruits
Constituents:Black pepper's aromatic, slightly musty odor comes from the volatile oils found largely in the flesh and skin; Black Pepper's pungent bite comes from the Alkaloids-piperine and Piperidine-and resins found mostly in the seeds. The oils go into perfumes and flavorings.

 

English Names: Sweet Basil

Botanical Names: Ocimum Basilicum
Family: Labiatae Parts Used: Herbs and seeds
Habitat: Indigenous to India.

References:

  • Characteristics of essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in Australia. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 877-881.
  • Van Duong, Nguyen. 1993. Medicinal Plants of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Masada, Y. 1976. Analysis of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY.
  • De Mena Guarero, M.G. 1994. Obtencion y Aprovechamiento de Extractos Vegetales de la Flora Salvadoreña. Editorial Universitaria, Salvador.
  • McCorkle, C.M., E. Mathias, and T.W. Schillhorn van Veen, eds. 1996. Ethnoveterinary Research and Development. Intermediate Technology Pubs., London.
  • Takano, T. 1993. Effects of the ratios of K to Ca in the nutrient solution on the growth, nutrient uptake, essential oil content and composition of basil. Acta Hort. #331: 129-135.

English Names: Boswellia

Botanical Names: Boswellia Serrata
Family: Parts Used: When the tree trunk is tapped, a gummy oleoresin is exuded. A purified extract of this resin is used in modern herbal preparations.
Habitat: It is moderate to large branching trees found in India, strips of bark peeled away yielding gummy oleoresin, contains Oil, Terpenoids and Gum. Boswellic acid is isolated from Gumresin of Boswellia Serrata and identifies as active principle.

Indications: Boswellia is the premier Ayurvedic herb in helping the body maintain a healthy and positive inflammation response. It works very well yet avoids all of the irritation associated with many conventional pain relievers. In traditional Ayurveda, Boswellia is believed to suppress the proliferating tissue found in the inflamed areas and also supports healthy connective tissue. The mechanism is similar to the action of non-steroidal groups of anti-arthritic drugs (such as NSAIDSs) with no side effects, gastric irritation or ulcerogenic activity. Boswellia has also been found to maintain healthy blood supply to the joints. Recent studies have shown that arthritic conditions often are accompanied by some form of a virus. It is often recommended to take Neem along with Boswellia or Joint Support to help maintain healthy blood-toxin levels. Neem is generally recommended to be taken over a course of two to three months. We offer Boswellia as a single herb or in our Joint Support formula which contains Ashwagandha and Shilajit as well as other supportive herbs. According to Ayurveda many kinds of diseases originate in the colon due to a build-up of toxins known as "ama". These toxins move from the colon into the bloodstream and then into the joints, which is a contributing factor in the pain associated with arthritis. The best way to reverse this process is to remove the toxins from the joints and eliminate them from the body. It is therefore critical to keep the colon healthy by eating properly and exercising. Herbal supplements and formulas area a great way to maintain a healthy colon, as it is extremely effective in helping the body and specifically the colon to re-balance itself. In addition to adding herbs to one's diet, one should be very careful to eat a healthy and balanced diet as well as exercising regularly to re-balance the body. Ayurveda also recommends the use of herbal massage oils to cool and soothe the inflamed joints and muscles. Some very effective oils for arthritic conditions include Maha Vishgarba Oil, Muscle and Joint Therapy (Vata Oil), and Sesame and Mustard Oils. Ayurveda suggest that massage oils be used on a daily basis and can be applied directly to the affected area, or used in a full body massage. The oils can also be added to the bath water. This a very effective way of assimilating the herbs into the entire body. All of our oils are organic, cold-pressed and of the highest quality. 


Contraindications: According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other. Toxicity studies of Boswellia in rats and primates showed no pathological changes in Heamotological parameters at doses of up to 1000 mg/Kg. The LD50 was established more than 2 gm/kg.

References:

  • Dennis, T. J. et. al.: Bull. Med. Ethnobot. Res., 1: 353,(1980).
  • Fowler, j.: Ind. Inst. Sci., SA: 221, (1925).
  • Sharma: Ind. Drugs, 17: 225, (1980).
  • Bhuchar, V. M.: Ind. J. Tech., 20(l): 38, (1982).
  • Bhargava, G. G.: Ind. For., 104: 174, (1978).
  • Roberts, j.: Soc. Chem. Ind. (Lond.), 42: 486, (1923).
  • Parthy, R. S.: ind. J. Chem. See. B., 16B: 171, (1978).
  • Mukerji, S. et. al.: Ind. J. Pharm., 32: 48, (1970).
  • Simpson, J. C. E. and N. E. J. Willioms J. Chem. Soc. 686 (1938).
  • Simpson, J. C. E. and A. R. K. George J. Chem. Soc. 793 (1941).
  • Gupta, V. N. et al. Ind. Drugs. 24: 221 (1987) and References cited therein.
  • Garg, S. C.: Ind. J. Pharm., 36: 46, (1974).
  • Atal,C.K.:Symp.Int.,Workshop on Pharma-cological and Biochemical, Approaches on Medicinal Plants,School of Biol. Sciences,Madurai,India, Abstract. 14. Singh, G. B. et. al.: lnd. J. Pharmacol., 115, (1984).
  • Mishra, V. et. al.: Bull. Bot. Soc. Univ. Saugar., 27: 59, (1980).
  • Menon, M. K. and A. Kar: Planta Med., 19: 337, (1971).
  • Gogate,V. M.: Dravyagunavignyana, Continental Prakashan, Pune, (1982).


English Names: Chanca Piedra, Quebra Pedra

Botanical Names: Phyllanthus Niruri

Family: Euphorbiaceae Parts Used: Plant
Habitat: Chanca piedra is a small erect annual herb growing up to 30 to 40 centimeters in height and is indigenous to the rainforests in the Amazon and other tropical areas including the Bahamas, southern India and China.

English Names: Bromelain

Botanical Names: Bromelain (Group of Proteolytic enzymes)
Family: Parts Used: Stems of Pineapples
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.


English Names: Bitter Gourdin, Bitter melon

Botanical Names: Momordica Charantia
Family: Parts Used: Fruits, Seeds
Habitat: This climbing plant is cultivated everywhere in India for its fruit.

References:

  • Dhalla, N.S. Gupta, K.C. Sastry, M.S. and Malhotra, C.L. 1961. Chemical composition of the fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. Indian J Pharm 23, 128.
  • Lotlikar, M.M. and Rajarama Rao, M.R. 1966. Pharmacology of a hypoglycaemic principle isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia Linn. Indian J Pharm 28, 129.
  • Vasistha, S.K., vasistha, S.C. and Rao, V.R.K. 1961-1962. Chemical examination of Momordica charantia. Part III. Preparation of D-galacturonic acid and some new salts of it. J Sci Res Banaras Hindu Univ 12(2), 228.
  • Vasistha, S.K., Antony, T.C. and Vasistha S.C. 1960-61. Chemical examination of Momordica charantia. Part I. A Study in the pectinous substances. J Sci Res Banaras Hindu Univ 12(2), 228.
  • Vimala Devi, M. Venkateswarlu, M. and Krishna Rao, R.V. 1977. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves of Momordica Charantia. Abstr of the paper presented at XXIX Indian Pharmaceut Cong., Waltair, 28-31 Dec., 1977. Indian J Pharm 39, 167.

English Names: Barberry

Botanical Names: Berberis Aristata
Family: European barberry, Jaundice berry, Pepperidge, Pepperidge Bush, Sowberry Parts Used: Bark of roots.
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Avoid during pregnancy.

English Names: Black Salt

Botanical Names: Black Salt

English Names: Beleric Myrobalan

Botanical Names: Terminalia belerica
Family: Parts Used: Fruits
Habitat: This herb, which is an important Ayurvedic herb, is a tree found throughout the Indian forests and plains.

References:

  • Anand KK, Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Gupta VN, Bhardwaj V3,4,5-Trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid), the hepatoprotective principle in the fruits of Terminalia belerica-bioassay guided activity. Pharmacol Res 1997 Oct;36(4):315-21
  • Shaila HP, Udupa AL, Udupa SL Preventive actions of Terminalia belerica in experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol 1995 Apr;49(2):101-6

English Names: Velvet Bean, Cowhage, Cow-itch, Buffalo bean

Botanical Names: Mucuna pruriens
Family: Parts Used: Seeds, Fruits
Habitat: M. pruriens is an herbaceous twining annual. The leaves are trifoliate; the leaflets, broadly ovate, ellipticor thomboid ovate and unequal at the base; the flowers, purple and in axillary, pendulous racemes, the pods, curved, longitudinally ribbed, turgid and densely clothed with persistent pale brown or gray, irritant bristles; the seeds, black, 4-6 in a pod and avoid. This Ayurvedic herb is an annual climbing shrub common in the tropics of India; legumes are eaten as a vegetable.

Contraindications: Do not use when congested.

Adverse effects were mild and were mainly gastro-intestinal in nature. No adverse effects were seen in clinical laboratory reports (lbid, 1995).

References:

  • Sihna, J Res Educ Indian med, 1992, 11(1), 15, Goyal, J Econ Taxon Bot, 1991, 15, 677.
  • Manyam, B.V., et al. (1995) J. of alternative and Comp. Med., 1(3) 249-255.
  • Amin, K.M.Y. (1996) Fitoterapia, 67: 53-58.
  • Bhasin, S., et al. (1996) new England J. of Med., 335, 1-7.
  • Singh, R.H. et al. (1989) J. Res. ayur. Siddha, 1(1): 1-6.

English Names: Centratherum Anthelminticum

Botanical Names: Centratherum Anthelminticum
Family: Parts Used: Seeds
Habitat: Throughout India up to 5500 feet. In the Himalayas and often cultivated in villages.

English Names: Cumin seed

Botanical Names: Cuminum cyminum
Family: Parts Used: Seeds
Habitat: Cultivated throughout India except Bengal and Assam. Main areas are the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

English Names: Dragon's Blood

Botanical Names: Daemonorops, Draco
Family: Palmae, Origin, Sumatra, S.Borneo and Penang Parts Used: Resin obtained from the fruits

English Names: East Indian Globe Thistle

Botanical Names: Sphaeranthus Hirtus

Family: Compositae Parts Used: Flowers

English Names: Fumitory

Botanical Names: Fumaria officinalis
Family: Fumariaceae
Habitat: This plant was not indigenous to India but it was imported from Persia.

Constituents:The most prominent Constituents of fumitory are an alkaloid fumarine, fumaric acid, and considerable amounts of inorganic matter, especially potassium salts.

English Names: Fenugreek

Botanical Names: Trigonella Foenum Graecum

Parts Used: Dried seeds
Habitat: Lequminosae. This all-season herb is found in wild and extensively cultivated in India. It has triplets or oval leaflets. It blooms yellow white flowers in the summer and has aromatic seeds. Used through the ages by Indians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans for medicinal and culinary purposes.

Constituents:The scented seeds contain Vitamin A, B1, C, Iron and Minerals.

Energetics: Indications: 

Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Study
References:

  • Raghunathan,K. and R. Mitra: Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha,New Delhi. (1982)
  • Hardman,R.J.et.al.:Phytochemistry 19:698 (1980)
  • Khurana,S.et.al.:Phytochemistry 21:2145 (1982)
  • Gupta,R.K.et.al.:Phytochemistry 23:2605 (1984)
  • Ghosal,S. et al.:Ind. J. Pharm. 32:176(1970)
  • Hardman,R. and A. A. Elujoba:Planta Med. 39 : 1225 (1983)
  • Trease G.E. and W.C. Evans:Pharmacognosy, ELBS/ Balliere Tindall. East bourne,(1983)
  • Sharma,G.I. and R.Kamal:Ind.J.Bot.5:58(1981)
  • Parmar,V.S. et al. : Z. Naturforsch, 37B:521 (1982
  • Varshney,I.P. et al.:J.Nat. Prod.47:44(1984)
  • Sulman,F.G. and E.Menczel:Harokeach Haire 9:6(1962).ChemAbstr. 57:11308 e (1962)
  • Menczel,E. and F.G.Sulman:J.Pharm.Assn. Israel 9:25 (1962)
  • Mishinsky,J. et al.:Lancet ii: 1311(1967)
  • Shani,J.A. et al.:Arch.Int.Pharmacodyn. Ther. 210 :27(1974)
  • Varshney, I. P. S. and S. C. Sharma: J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 43 : 564(1968)
  • Al-Meshal, I.A. et al. : Abstr. Int. Symp. Chinese Med. Mat. Res. Hongkong June 12, p. 48(1984)
  • Singhal, P.C. et al. : Curr. Sci. 51:136(1982)
  • Valette,et al. : Atherosclerosis 50:105(1984)
  • Khare,A.K. et al. : Ind. Drugs, February,p. 191(1982).




English Names: Gum of silk cotton tree Botanical Names: Bombax Malabaricum
Family: Parts Used: Gum resin
Habitat: Throughout the hottest forest regions of India.

 

Constituents:Contains Tannic and Gallic acid.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References:

  • Nadkami, K. M.: Indian Materia Medica, 3rd Edn. Vol. 1, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, (1976).
  • Mehra, P. N. and C. R. Karnik: Ind. J. Pharm., 30: 284, (1968).
  • Misra, M. B. et. al.: Ind. Pharm., 30: 165, (1968).
  • Misra, M. B. et. al.: Ind. Physiol. & Pharmacol, 10: 59, (1966).
  • Kirtikar K. M. and B. D. Basu: Indian Medicinal Plants, Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh, Dehradun, (1985).
  • Satyavati, G. V. et. al.: Medicinal Plants of India, Vol. 1, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, (1976).
  • Mukherjee, J. and B. Roy: J. Ind. Chem. Soc., 48.. 769, (1971).
  • Seshadri, V. et. al.: Curr. Sci., 40..630,(1971).
  • Seshadri, V. et. al.: Ind. J. Chem., ll: 825, (1973).
  • Harish Gopal and R. K. Gupta: J. Pharm. Sci., 61: 807, (1972).




English Names: Ginger Botanical Names: Zingiber Officinale
Family: Zingiberaceae Parts Used: Rhizome (Underground Stem), Roots
Habitat: Ginger is a perennial plant that grows in India, China, Mexico, and several other countries.

 

Constituents:

The dried rhizome of ginger contains approximately 1-4% volatile oils. These are the medically active Constituents of ginger, they are also responsible for ginger.s characteristic odor and taste. The aromatic principles include Zingiberene and Bisabolene, while the pungent principles are known as Ginerols and Shogaols.


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References:

  • Raghunathan, K. and R. Mittra: Pnarmacognosy of indigenous Drugs. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. New Delhi. (1982).
  • Trease, G. E. and W. C. Evans: Pharmacognosy, ELBS/Ballicre Tindall, Eastbourne (1983).
  • Smith, R. M. and J. M. Robinson.. Phytochemistry 20: 203 (1981).
  • Slucki, K. and E. Steinegger: Planta Med. 39: 274 (1980).
  • Deniff, 1. J. et al... J. Chem. Soc. 1.. 1267 (1980).
  • Harvey, D. j.: J. Chromatogr. 212: 75.
  • Sharma, A. K. et al.: Bull. Med. Ethnobot. Res. 1: 262 (1980).
  • Kinchr, F. et al.: Chem. Pharm. Bull. 30: 754 (1982).
  • Kishore, P. et al.: Rheumatism 19. 476 (1982).
  • Babu, S. R... Rheumatism IS: 24 (1982).
  • Toyoda, I.: Chem. Abstr. 71: 33425 m (1969).
  • Battar, 0. P... Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 20: 572 (1982).
  • Koho, J. P.: Kokai Tokyo 82: 59: SW (1982) Chem. Abstr. 97: 33378 k (1982).
  • Ohijumi, Y. et al.: J. Pharm. Sci. 71: 1174 (1982).
  • Masaki, A. et al.: Wakan, Shinp. 15: 162 (1982).
  • Zutshi, U. and J. L. Kaul: Ind. Drugs 19. 476 (1982).
  • Tathed, P. et al.: Personal Communication.




English Names: Garlic Botanical Names: Allium Sativum
Family: Parts Used: Bulb and Oil
Habitat: Cultivated all over India, garlic is closely related to onion and chives. The largest commercial garlic production is in Central California.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Most people enjoy garlic. However, some individuals who are sensitive to it may experience heartburn and flatulence. Because of garlic.s Anticlotting properties, persons taking anticoagulant drugs should check with their nutritionally oriented doctor before taking garlic. Those scheduled for surgery should inform their surgeon if they are taking garlic supplements. There are no known contra-indications to the use of garlic during pregnancy and lactation.

 

No significant side effects information is available so far.

Study
References


English Names: Garcinia Cambogia Botanical Names: Garcinia Cambogia
Family: Parts Used: Fruit
Habitat: A Fruiting tree grows in evergreen forests in Southern India and Pattani Southern Thailand.

 

Constituents:The fruit of the tree contain H.C.A. (Hydroxy Citric Acid) which comes in extract is the active constituent/principal.

 


Energetics: Indications: When the body’s energy needs are less than the daily calorie intake, the body produces excess glucose. This glucose is then converted into glycogen, which is stored for future conversion into energy in both the liver and muscles. People gain weight, or store energy as fat, after the body’s capacity for glycogen storage is reached. At this point, the excessive calories become stored in fat cells. In traditional Ayurveda, Garcinia Cambogia is used to maintain healthy weight, appetite, and fat storage levels in the body. In conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise program, Citrin can help promote a healthy synthesis of energy and carbohydrates. 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Gymnema Sylvestre "Sugar Destroyer" Botanical Names: Gymnema Sylvestre
Family: Parts Used: Leaves
Habitat: A climbing plant common in Central and Southern India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Gymnema Sylvestre is one of the most famous Ayurvedic herbs for promoting and maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. It is called the Gurmar or the “sugar destroyer” in Ayurveda, because of its ability to block sweet taste. Gymnema should be considered part of your diet if you’re struggling to maintain and balance blood sugar levels. 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Gulancha Tinospora Botanical Names: Tribulis Terrestris
Family: Parts Used: Fruit
Habitat: This herb is a trailing plant common in sandy soil throughout India at 11,000 ft. in Kashmir.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Tribulus had been used for centuries in Ayurveda to promote healthy Gokhru (reproductive system) in both men and women. It is said to have an aphrodisiac action due to the presence of saponin. Tribulus also maintains healthy levels of testosterone and hormones in the body, making it a great supplement for atheletes. Tribulus Terrestris is an all natural herb that stimulates the Luteinizing Hormone, the hormone responsible for the body's testosterone production.
Contraindications: Do not take if dehydrated. No other significant information regarding safety is available.

 

Study
References:

  • Raghunathan, K. and R. Mittra: Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New Delhi (1982).
  • Pendse, G. P. and S. K. Dutt: Ind. J. Med. Res. 20.-653 (1932).
  • Bhide, B. V. et al... J. Univ. Bombay 10: 89 (1941).
  • Kidwai, A. R. et al.: J. Sci. Indus. Res. 813: 115 (1949).
  • Sehgal, S. N. and D. V. Majumdar: J. Proc. Inst. Chem. (India) 31: 12 (1959).
  • Chatterjee, A. and S. Ghosh. Sci. and Cult. (Calcutta) 26. 140 (1960).
  • Bisset, N. G. and J. Nwaiwu: Planta Med. 48: 275 (1983).
  • Pendse, V. K. et al.: Ind. J. Pharmacol. 9: 221 (1977).
  • Pendse, V. K. et al.: Ind. Drugs. Oct: 14 (1981).
  • Sisodia, P. and V. Laxminarayanan: Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2: 1 (1961).
  • Rai, M. and S. S. Gupta: Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 10: 12 (1966).
  • Gulati, 0. D. et al.: Rheumatism 17: 76 (1982).
  • Raghunathan, K. et al.: J. Res. Ind. Med. 3: 201 (1969).
  • Gupta, S. S. et al.: Ind. J. Physiol, Pharmacol 9. 87 (1965).
  • Gupta, S. S. et al.: Ind. J. Med. Res. (1967).
  • Gupta, S. S.: Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 8: 37 (1964).
  • Singh, K. P. et al.: J. Res. Ind. Med. 10: 9 (1975).
  • Rege, N. et al.: Ind. Drugs Sept. 544 (1984).
  • Kishore, P. et al.: J. Res. Ayur. Siddha 1. 417 (1980).
  • Mhaisker, U. B. et al.: Rheumatism 16: 35 (1980).
  • Babu, S. R.. Rheumatism 18: 24 (1982).
  • Dwivedi, M. L. et al.: Sachitra Ayurveda 37. 39 (1984).
  • Hemadri, K. and S. S. Rao: Ancient Sci. Life 3: 209 (1984).
  • Saley, S. R. and S. H. Nalgirkai: Nagarjun 25: 203 (1982).




English Names: Tinospora Cordifolia, Indian Tinospora, Guduchi Botanical Names: Tinospora Cordifolia
Family: Parts Used: Stems
Habitat: Menispermaceae. A large, glabrous deciduous climbing shrub. The stems are rather succulent with long filiform fleshy aerial roots form the branches. The bark is gray brown and watery. The leaves are membranous and cordate. The flowers small and greenish yellow. This herb is found throughout tropical India ascending to a height of 300 mts.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Golden shower Botanical Names: Cassia Fistula
Family: Parts Used: Pods
Habitat: Common throughout India and Burma.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Horse gram Botanical Names: Dolichos Biflorus
Family: Parts Used: seeds
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Indian Bedellium Tree, Gum Gugal Botanical Names: Commiphora Mukul
Family: Parts Used: Gum Resin
Habitat: Guggul is spiny shrub or small tree with many branches, usually growing two or three meter high, and found in the arid, rocky tracts of Rajasthan, Gujrat and Kamatka in India. A healthy tree yields 250-500 grams of resin in one season, and Guggul plants typically begin yielding resin after five years.

 

Commiphora Mukul ranges from a woody shrub to a small tree, with spirally ascending branches. Leaves 1-3 foliate, rhomboid to avate in shape, irregularly toothed edges. Flowers are small, from brown to pink in color and are unisexual. It.s fruit is red and oval in shape. The tree grows in rocky and rough terrain in warm and semiarid areas of India. It is found on the slopes of hills and foothills. The oleoresin from Commiphora Mukul has been mentioned in the ancient Indian texts Athavaveda, and in the early medical texts of Charaka, Sushuta, the Samhitas and Nighantus which are over a thousand years old. Textbooks of Ayurvedic Medicine distinguish between fresh and old varieties of Guggul.

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Guggul is a well known Ayurvedic herb which normailizes lipid metabolism, and regulates healthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, it maintains the body's ability to burn excess fat. It does this safely, effectively, and without the serious side effects that often accompany western drugs. 
Contraindications: Purified Guggul may be taken for a long time without ill effect.

 

Study
References:

  • Raghunathan, K. and R. Mittra: Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New Delhi (1982).
  • Bose, S. and K. C. Gupta: Ind. J. Chem. 2:57 (1964).
  • Bose, S. and K.C. Gupta: Ind. J. Chem. 2:156 (1964).
  • Patil, N.D. et al.: Tetrahedron *:2341 (1972)
  • Satyavat, G.V.: Effect of an indigenous drug on disorders of lipid metabolism with special reference to arteriosclerosis and obesity. Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine, BHU, Varanasi (1968).
  • Ram P. Rastogi and B.N. Mehrotra: Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. 3 Central Drug Research Institute, Lunow, India.
  • Duwiejua M. Zeitlin IJ, Waterman PG, Chapman J, Mhango GJ, Provan GJ.: Anti-inflammatory activity of resins from some species of the plant Family Burseraceae. Planta Med 1993, Feb;59 (1):12-16.
  • Lata S. Saxena KK, Bhasin V, Saxena RS, Kumar A, Srivastava VK.: Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis - a comparative evaluation. Department of Pharmacology, L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Sarbhoy AK, Varshney JL, Maheshwari ML, Saxena DB.: Efficacy of some essential oils and their Constituents on few ubiquitous molds. Zentalbl Bakteriol [naturwiss] 1978; 133 (7-8): 723-725.




English Names: Indian Sarsaparilla Botanical Names: Hemidesmus Indicus
Family: Parts Used: Root
Habitat: Climbing Twiner Plant found in Central and Southern India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Indian Gooseberry Botanical Names: Emblica Officinalis, Phyllanthus Emblica
Family: Euphorbiaceae Parts Used: Dried fruit, Ripe Fruit, Seed, Leaves, Root, Bark, Flowers.
Habitat: A deciduous tree with exfoliating bark.

 

Constituents:Amla contains the highest amount of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid), Phyllembin, Phyllemblic acid, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid in natural form and Cytokin like substance identified as Zeatin, Z riboside, Z nucleotide, Tannins 30%.

 


Energetics: Rasa- It contains all the six tastes except Lavana (Salty one) But Amla (Sour) dominate over the others. Guna (Characteristics)- Guru (Heavy); Ruksha (Rough) Veerya (Potency)- Sheeta (Cool and calm) Vipaka (Post digestion effect)- Madhura (Sweet) Indications: Amla is the most concentrated form of Vitamin C in the entire plant kingdom, containing up to 720 mg/100g of fresh pulp and 921 mg/100cc of pressed juice. This is approximately 20 times the vitamin C content of an orange. It is a very potent form of Vitamin C and yet is easily assimilated by the human body. The Vitamin C in the Amalaki fruit is bonded with tannins that protect it from being destroyed by heat or light. Amla promotes and maintains healthy digestion, which in turn regulates the absorption of food by increasing the fire (know as "Agni" in Ayurveda) in the stomach, without creating any excess stomach acids. 
Contraindications: No side effects have been noted so far.

 

Study:

Ayurvedic Energetics:

  • Rasa: Sweet, sour, Pungent, Bitter, Astringent
  • Veerya: Cooling
  • Vipaka: Sweet
  • Guna: Light, Dry
  • Doshas: VPK
  • Pharmacological Action: Fruit, Cooling, Laxative, Stomachic, Tonic, Diuretic

Clinical Research: The Indian Gooseberry (Emblica Officinalis/Amla) is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C, containing up to 720 mg/100g of fresh pulp and 921 mg/100cc of pressed juice. This is approximately 20 times the vitamin C content of an Orange. Amalaki fruit has, in fact, been used successfully to treat human scurvy. It is also effective in the treatment of amlapitta (peptic ulcer) as well as in non-ulcer dyspepsia. The alcoholic extract (1gm/kg) given to isoprotenol-pretreated rats resulted in an increase in cardiac glycogen and a decrease in serum LDH, suggesting a cardio-protective action. It also demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels and an antiatherogenic effect in rabbits.

Traditional Uses: Indian Gooseberry (Emblica Officinalis/Amla) is commonly used in the treatment of burning sensation anywhere in the body, anorexia, constipation, urinary discharges, inflammatory bowels, cough, hemorrhoids, fever, thirst, and toxicity of the blood. The juice of the fresh bark mixed with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhea. The leaf infusion with fenugreek seeds is given in chronic diarrhea. Acute bacillary dysentery may be treated with a syrup of Amalaki and lemon juice. The exudation from incisions made into the fruit is used as a collyrium in inflammatory eye conditions; the seeds are powdered and used to treat asthma, bronchitis, and biliousness. It is an ingredient in several important medicinal preparations including Triphala ("three fruits"), a laxative and carminative, and the famous Chyavanprash, a general tonic for people of all ages, which improves mental and physical well being.


References


English Names: Indian Kino Tree, Malabar Kino Botanical Names: Pterocarpus Marsupium
Family: Parts Used: Gum Resin and Heartwood
Habitat: Lequminosae, found commonly in hilly regions of central and southern India & Ceylon. A moderate to large deciduous tree with a stout crooked stem and widely spreading branches, thick bark, yellowish gray and scaly. The older trees exude a blood red gum resin. The leaves are 15-23 cms. Long, bipinnately compound, leaflets are oblong, the flowers occur in large panicles, fruit pods 2.5-5 cms., orbicular, flat winged.

 

Constituents:Liquiritigenin and Isoliuiritigenin.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Jambul, Syzygium Cumini, Java Plum, Syzygium Jambolana Botanical Names: Engenia Jambolana
Family: Parts Used: Fruits, dried seeds and bark
Habitat: A tree 20-30 ft. high with long, narrow, peach-like Leaves. Flowers, green-yellow in terminal bunches, blooming in July. Fruit red to black. Seeds oval 0.25 -0.5 inches long and 1/5 inch round. It is found throughout the planes from the Himalayas to South India.

 

Constituents:Seeds contain a Glucoside Jamboline, a Phenolic substance called ellagic acid, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, chlorophyll, fat, resin, gallic acid, albumen, etc.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far. According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

 

Study
References


English Names: Kamarkas, Bengal Kino and Flame-of-the-forest Botanical Names: Butea Frondosa
Family: Papilonaceae Parts Used: Gum
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References:

  • Shome, U. et. al.: New Bot., 7: 11, (1980).
  • Verma, R.: J. Nat. Integ. Med. Assn., 24. Ill, (1982).
  • Prasad, U. N.: Ind. For., 108. 239, (1932).
  • Lall, J. and A. Dutt. J. Ind. Chem. Soc., 12: 262, (1935).
  • Murti, P. B. R. and T. R. Seshadri: Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 12A: 477, (1940).
  • Chopra, j.: J. Ind. Chem. Soc., IS: 101, (1938).
  • Chandra, J. S.: ind. J. Pharmacol Sci., 40. 97, (1978).
  • Bishnoi, P.: Planta Med., 35: 286, (1979).
  • Gupta, S. R. et. al.: Phytochemistry, 9: 2231, (1970).
  • Chandra, J. S.: Ind. J. Pharm., 39: 79, (1977).
  • Mchta, B. K... J. Chem. Ind. Lond, 3: 98, (1981).
  • Ghosh, B. et. al.: Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 18: 166, (1981).
  • Kaleysa Raj R. and P. A. Kurup: Ind. Pharm., 24: 63, (1962).
  • Kaleysa Raj, R. and P. A. Kurup: Ind. Med. Res., 56: 1818, (1968).




English Names: Katuka, Kutki, Katki Botanical Names: Picrorrhiza Kurroa
Family: Scrophulariaceae Parts Used: Dried Rhizome
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is found in the western Himalayas from Kashmir in India to Sikkim.

 

Constituents:Iridoid glycosides (picrosides I, II, III and kutkoside) Cucurbitacin glycosides (bitterness of root).

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Licorice Botanical Names: Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Family: Lequminosae Parts Used: Rhizome, Root
Habitat: Balauchistan, Sub Himalayan tracts.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study: BECAUSE IT CONTAINS ADRENAL CORTICAL HORMONES, IT IS USEFUL FOR ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY.

 


References:

  • The Pharmacopoeia of India, 1966, p. 278-279
  • College of Pharmacy, Chim Aug University of Korea
  • Medical and Aromatic Plant Abstract, June 1986, No. 1437
  • American Pharmaceutical Association Proceedings 1950; 11(2) p. 90-94 Lathorp L B & Clark R W.
  • Natural Plant Products, R. D. Chaudhri 1989; p. 37, 61, 92, 153, 154, 135-136
  • Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I; 1976, p. 436-441
  • Chinese Journal Internal Medicine 1960; 8(3); p 226 li LS & Yeh




English Names: Long pepper Botanical Names: Piper Longum
Family: Parts Used: Fruits
Habitat: It is a slender aromatic climber with perennial woody roots occuring in the hotter parts of India western coasts, central himalayas to assam and lower hills of Bengal.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Manna Botanical Names: Tamarix Articulata or Tamarix Gallica
Family: Tamaricaceae Parts Used: Galls (powder of galls)
Habitat: In India it is found in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Saffron Botanical Names: Crocus Sativus
Family: Parts Used: Dried stigmas and tops of styles of crocus staivus flower
Habitat: An autumnal dwarf herb cultivated in Kashmir, India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant information regarding adverse side effects of this herb is available so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Shellac or Lac Botanical Names: Laccifer Lacca
Family: Lacciferidae Parts Used: 
Habitat: India and Thailand are the main areas in the world where lac is cultivated. Over 90% of Indian lac comes from the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Orissa. Lac insects thrive on certain trees and the principal lac host trees in India are Palas, Kusum and Ber. India exports different grades of handmade and machine made shellac as well as a limited quantity of refuse lac, namely kiri, molamma, etc.

 

Lac production was introduced from India to Thailand where the rain-tree is the principal lac host. Thailand exports sticklac and seedlac.

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Indian Gall Nut, Chebulic Myrobalan Botanical Names: Terminalia Chebula, Black Myrobalan
Family: Parts Used: Fruit, Bark.
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is a tree that grows in many parts of India. Harar is one of the herbs in Ayurvedic combination of three herbs called "Triphala".

 

Haritaki is a moderate or large deciduous tree, attaining 25-30 m in height. Leaf buds, branches and youngest leaves are covered with soft, shining rust coloured hairs. Leaves 7-20 cm, Glabrous, Opposite, Elliptic-oblong, Rounded, Acute apex. Flowers bisexual, white or yellow with an offensive smell. Fruit is a Drupe, pendulous, 2-4 cm long, Obovoid from a broad base, Glabrous, Sribbed, when dry, yellowish green, Bark 6 mm thick, dark brown, many generally shallow vertical cracks.

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Do not take this herb if you are pregnant or if you are suffering from dehydration, severe exhaustion, and emaciation.

 

Study
References:

  • Bhavamisra: Bhavaprakash Nighantu, 4th Edition-Ed. G. S. Pandeya and K. C.
  • Chunekar, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Sanstban, Varanasi (1985).
  • Tripathi, V. N. et. al.: sachitra Ayurveda, 740, (1983).
  • Inamdar, M. C. et. al.: 1,d. J. pharm., 21: 333 (1959).
  • Singh, P,. H. et. al.: j. Res. ind. Med., 92 (1974).
  • Miglani, B. E. et. al.: ind. J. Med. P-es., 59: 281 (1971).
  • Inamdar, M. C. et. al.: Ind. J. Pharn., 24..87 (1962).
  • Abhang, R. Y.: Deerghayu, 2: 3 (1976)




English Names: Mango Botanical Names: Mangifera Indica
Family: Parts Used: Dried pulp
Habitat: Constituents:Lac is the resinous protective secretion of the tiny lac insect. The major constituent of sticklac is the resin (70-80%); other Constituents present are: sugar, proteins, and soluble salts, coloring matter, wax, sand, woody matter, insect bodies and other extraneous matter; a volatile oil is present in traces. Lac resin is composed of mainly hydroxy fatty acids of C14- C18 carbon chains, such as aleuritic, butolic, C14- C16 mono- and di-hydroxy acids along with hydroxy terpenic acids having the rare cedrene skeleton as jalaric, laccijalaric, shellolic, and laksholic acids.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Muskroot Botanical Names: Nardostachys jatamansi
Family: Parts Used: Rhizome, Roots
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is found in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim. It grows in Himalayas at altitudes from 9,000-17,000 feet.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No side effects have been noted so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Nutmeg Botanical Names: Myristica Fragrans
Family: Parts Used: Dried Seeds
Habitat: This plant is native of Moluccas, now cultivated in many tropical countries. In India it is grown in Madras and Southern India State or where the climate is sufficiently hot and moist.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Neem Botanical Names: Azadirachta Indica
Family: Parts Used: All parts of the plant yield b -Sitosterol
Habitat: A large evergreen tropical tree, native to India and Burma.

 

Constituents:Nimbin, Nimbinin and Nimbidin

 


Energetics: Indications: In India the Neem Tree is known as the village pharmacy because of its many diverse uses. We recommend that Neem be taken with Boswellia or Joint Support . It is the herb of choice for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails. Neem posesses similar benefits of Echinacea & Goldenseal. In Ayurveda, Neem is said to purify the blood. According to Ayurvedic physicians Neem is called "Sarva Roga Nivarini": The One That Can Cure All Ailments. Even Gandhi revered Neem and called for additional scientific investigation into the powerful herb as part of his program to revitalize Indian traditions. 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Continuous use for more than a month is not advisable unless it is used with butter and honey or mixed and blended with other herbs (plants).

Study
References


English Names: Oak Galls Botanical Names: Quercus Infectoria
Family: Cupuliferae Parts Used: Galls
Habitat: It is a native of Greece, Asia, Syria and Persia.

 

Constituents:The principal chemical Constituents of galls is Tannin (Gallo - Tannic acid) 50 to 70% and about 3% of Gallic acid. 
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Oyster Shell Botanical Names: Ostrea Edulis
Family: Parts Used: 
Habitat: It is a shell found in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean courses. It has a small hollow, ovate excavation in which the animal with a soft fleshy suborbicuilar body is enclosed. The shell has a sort of hinge at one end and opens into two halves. Two halves, one shallow and the other deep, which is found adhering to the rock.

 

The shell is hard, externally gray or dark brown and rough and marked with lateral undulated streaks and internally white, smooth and shining.

Constituents:It contains Calcium Carbonate 85 to 95 %, Phosphate and sulfate of calcium and magnesium, oxide of iron, alumina and silica.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Pomegranate, Granada (Spanish), Grenade (French). Botanical Names: Punica granatum
Family: Punicaceae, Punica proto-punica Parts Used: 
Habitat: One of the important centers of wild pomegranate in Himachal Pradesh is Darlaghat, which is located about 50 km from Shimla. The word Darlaghat literally means a pass or place of wild pomegranate-trees in India.

 

An erect deciduous spreading shrub or tree can be 8 to 10 meters high; stern, woody and thorny; girth of main stem, 48 to 78 cm; wood, very hard and light yellow; leaves shed in December, new light red leaves appear in the middle of March, new growth, very ornamental.

Fruit is globular, crowned by a persistent calyx, possessing a hard outer rind with a red tinge. Seeds are angular, with a fleshy aril which constitutes the edible part. Color varies from red to pinkish white.

Constituents:Elligatannins, Punicalgin, Pelletierine, Granatins, Pectins

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Prickly chaff flower, Rough Chaf Tree Botanical Names: Achyranthes aspera
Family: Parts Used: Whole plant
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Pearl, Chanca piedra, Quebra Pedra Botanical Names: Mytilus margaritiferus
Family: Mollusca Parts Used: Plant
Habitat: Pearl mussel has nearly a semicircular shell, greenish with out and omamented with the most beautiful nacre within. The nacre is employed in the arts and the fine pearls are produced from the extravasation of nacre.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Red Sandalwood, Red saunders Botanical Names: Pterocarpus Santalinus, Red saunders
Family: Lequminosae Parts Used: wood
Habitat: This is a lofty forest tree. The leaves are alternate, stalked, ternate, and rarely pinnate; the leaflets alternate, petiolate, the uppermost larger, ovate-roundish or oblong, entire, emarginate or retuse, smooth above, and hoary beneath; the stipules wanting. The flowers are yellow, with red veins, papilionaceous, and borne in axillary, simple or branched, erect racemes. Bracts none. Calyx brown and 5-cleft. Stamens 10, combined into a sheath, split down to the base on the upper side, and half-way down on the lower. The legume is roundish, long-stalked, and falcate upward, compressed, smooth, and keeled on the lower edge; the keel is membranous and undulated. Seed solitary (L.).

 

Constituents:The coloring principle of Red Saunders is santalic acid (santalin), discovered by Pelletier. It is a red, tasteless, and odorless, crystalline powder, insoluble in water, soluble in ether, with yellow color, and in alcohol, with blood-red color (L. Meyer. 1848). It likewise dissolves in alkalies and acetic acid, but not in essential oils. H. Weidel (1869) obtained a similar substance, santal (C8H6O3), by extracting the wood with boiling alkaline water, precipitating with hydrochloric acid, and recrystallizing from alcohol. The yield was 0.3 per cent. Cazeneuve and Hugounenq (Jahresb. der Pharm., 1887, p. 159; and 1889, p. 127) digested the powdered wood with milk of lime, extracted the coloring substance with ether, and crystallized from alcohol. Carbon disulfide differentiated the product obtained into insoluble pterocarpin (C20H16O6) and soluble homo-pterocarpin (C24H24O6). Both substances are probably orcin-derivatives (see Lacmus). A small amount of tannin is contained in red Saunders.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Red Coral, Parvara, Praval Botanical Names: Coralium Rubrum
Family: Polypi Parts Used: Purified, Calcinated powder Calcareous Shell or Skeleton
Habitat: Red Sea, Persian and Arabian Gulfs, Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean.

 

In appearance it is a small shrub in a pendant or reverse position. It occurs in slender, cylindrical and generally branched pieces of brick red color. Coral is made up of numeral minute pieces. It easily breaks with crackling sound. In a raw state the stems and branches are covered with a cortical substance which is the Habitation of soft small Polypi.

 

Constituents:Animal or organic matter 8%. Carbonate of Lime 83%. Magnesium Carbonate 3.5% and oxide of iron 4.5%. The red color is due to its containing irons.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Rasna, Inula racemosa Botanical Names: Pluchea Lanceolata
Family: Composite Parts Used: Leaves, Whole Plant
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Red Hogweed Botanical Names: Boerhavia diffusa
Family: Herb, root Parts Used: 
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is found throughout India. Growing to 70 centimeters in height. It has a large root system and produces yellow and white flowers. It can be found in many tropical and warm-climate countries.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References:

  • Jain, S.P., et.al., 1984. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jaunsar-Bawar Hills, Uttar Pradesh, India J Ethnopharmacol 12 2: 213-222 (1984)
  • Anis, M. et.al., 1994. Medicinal Plantlore of Aligarh, India. Int J Pharmacog 32 1: 59-64 Agarwal,R.R. 1934. Chemical Examination of Punar-nava or Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Proc Acad Sci 4 : 73-76 (1934)
  • Mudgal, V., 1975. Studies on Medicinal Properties of Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Boerhaavia Diffusa. Planta Med 28 : 62- (1975)
  • Gaitonde,B.B., et.al., 1974. Diuretic Activity of Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa). Bull Haffkine Inst 2 : 24- (1974)
  • Chowdhury, A. et.al., 1955 Boerhaavia diffusa - Effect on Diuresis and Some Renal Enzymes. Ann Biochem Exp Med 15 : 119-126 (1955)
  • Singh, R.P., et.al., 1992 Recent Approach in Clinical and Experimental Evaluation of Diuretic Action of Punarnava (B.diffusa) with Special Reference to Nephrotic Syndrome. J Res Edu Ind Med 7 1: 29-35 (1992)
  • Devi, M.V., et.al., 1986 Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on the Diuretic Activity of Punarnava Tablets. J Res Edu Ind Med 5 1: 11-12 (1986)
  • Mishra, J.P. et.al., Studies on the Effect of Indigenous Drug Boerhaavia diffusa Rom.on Kidney Regeneration. Indian J Pharmacy 12 : 59-. (1980)
  • Chandan, B.K. et.al., 1991. Boerhaavia diffusa: A Study of its Hepatoprotective Activity. J Ethnopharmacol 31 3: 299-307 (1991)
  • Hansen, K., et.al., 1995. In Vitro Screening of Traditional Medicines for Anti-Hypertensive Effect Based on Inhibition of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Ace) J Ethnopharmacol48 1: 43-51 (1995)
  • Dhar, M., et.al., 1968. Screening of Indian Plants for Biological Activity: Part I. Indian J Exp Biol 6 : 232-247 (1968)
  • Sohni, Y., et.al., 1995 The Antiamoebic Effect of a Crude Drug Formulation of Herbal Extracts Against Entamoeba histolytica in Vitro and in Vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 45 1: 43-52 (1995)
  • Antifertility Studies on Plants. Anon: Indian Counc Med Res-Ann Rept Director General1978 : 63-64 (1978)
  • Adesina, S., 1979. Anticonvulsant Properties of the Roots of Boerhaavia diffusa. Q J Crude Drug Res 17 : 84-86 (1979)
  • Akah, P., et.al., 1993. Nigerian Plants with Anti-convulsant Property. Fitoterapia 64 1: 42-44 (1993)
  • Olukoya,D., et.al., 1993. Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 39 1: 69-72 (1993)
  • Vijayalakshimi, K., et.al., 1979. Nematicidal Properties of Some Indigenous Plant Materials Against Second Stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne Incognita (Koffoid and White) Chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41 4: 326-331 (1979)
  • Verma, H., et.al., 1979. Antiviral Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa Root Extract and Physical Properties of the Virus Inhibitor. Can J Bot 57 : 926-932 (1979)




English Names: Asparagus, Shatavari Botanical Names: Asparagus racemosus
Family: Liliaceae Parts Used: Root
Habitat: Shatavari, Asparagus racemosus, is a climbing plant which grows in low forest areas throughout India. A much branched spinus under-shrub with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent roots. The major Constituents of Asparagus plant are Shatavarins I-IV, Sistosterol, Asparagamine.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Shatavari is also known as Asparagus racemosus. SHATAVARI is a cooling, calming, nourishing and purifying herb which has a special affinity with women though it is also excellent for men. SHATAVARI is known to maintain and nourish the female reproductive organs. For men it is a nutritive tonic similar to ginseng. Because Shatavari is a gentle herb which regulates growth, is a systemic tonic, and is calming, it is considered, along with Ashwagandha and Bhrami, to be excellent for people of all ages. In Ayurveda this amazing herb is known as the "Queen of Herbs" because it promotes love and devotion.
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Mineral Pitch and Shilajit Botanical Names: Asphaltum and Shilajit
Family: Parts Used: Oozing (an Ayurvedic mineral)
Habitat: Shilajit is obtained from rocks in the Himalayan region. It is a form of mineral that drips from the cracks of the rocks during hot weather. it is decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries before. The biotransformed plant matter is extruded from the rocks by geothermal pressures. it is collected in raw form for further purification. Walking high in the Himalayan mountains, a thick rich paste oozing out from the rocks in the towering cliffs is Shilajit. It increases the core energy responsible for sexual and spiritual power, the same force that is withered by stress and anxiety. The use of Shilajit for renewing vitality. As per Ayurveda Shilajit is hot bitter.

 

Constituents:The porous fulvic acid and humic acids in Shilajit carry herbal compounds deeply into the tissues of the body. These porous carrying cavities also hook toxins and escort them out of the body.

 


Energetics: Indications: Used by Russian olympic athletes and cosmonauts for over four decades to enhance physical and mental performance. True Shilajit Moomiyo is rare and difficult to find. Shilajit is known to promote vitality and core strength. It is known for its rejuvanative properties, and is known to promote healthy recovery time and muscle strength. Please take a minute to read about the history and power of this incredible product. 
Contraindications: Do not use with high uric acid count or with febrile diseases.

 

Study
References


English Names: Siberian tea Botanical Names: Bergenia Ligulata
Family: Saxifragaceae Parts Used: Rhizome (root)
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Sensitive plant Botanical Names: Mimosa Pudica
Family: Mimosaceae Parts Used: Roots
Habitat: Roots have characteristic 6 to 8 layers of cork cells. The secondary cortex consists of thin-walled parenchyma filled with starch granules. Cells of the cortex contain both tannin and calcium oxalate crystals. These tannin-containing cells, starch granules, crystals of calcium-oxalate, cork cells and reticulate cells are the Constituents of the root.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Senna Botanical Names: Cassia senna, Cassia angustifolia
Family: Parts Used: The leaves and pods
Habitat: Cassia senna is native to tropical Africa and cultivated in Egypt and the Sudan and elsewhere; Cassia angustifolia is native to India and cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References:

  • Trease, G. E. and W. C. Evans: Pharmacognosy, Balliere Tindall, Eastbourne, (1983).
  • Tanaka, H. et. al. - Chem. Pharm. Bull., 30: 5, (1982).
  • Lemli, J. et. al.: Planta Med., 43: 11, (1981).
  • Seshadri T. R.: Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., IOA: 96, (1939).
  • Latven et. al.: J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 41: 548, (1952).
  • Pictrusko, R. G.: Am. 1-losp. Pharm., 34: 29, (1977).
  • Hardcastle, J. D. and L. Wilkins: Gut, ll: 1038, (1970).
  • Editional, Brit. Med. 1: 150, (1974).
  • Itok, K. and 0. Najayo: Bull. Pharm. Res. Inst. japan, 2: 23, (1951).
  • Baldwin, W. F.: Can. Med. Assn. j., 89: 566, (1963).




English Names: Turmeric Botanical Names: Curcuma Longa
Family: Parts Used: Tubers and Rhizome
Habitat: Zingiberaceae, A native of India and Indonesia, Turmeric is a perennial with pulpy, orange, tuberous roots that grow to about two feet in length. The aerial parts, which reach three feet, include Large, lily-like leaves, a thick, squat, central flower spike, and funnel-shaped yellow flowers.

 

Constituents:Active constituent is curcumin. It has been shown to have a wide range of therapeutic effects. 
Energetics: Indications: Turmeric has long been recognized in Ayurveda for its many healing properties. The botanical name for Turmeric is Curcuma longa. In Ayurveda, turmeric has been used internally as a tonic and blood purifier, and topically for maintaining and promoting healthy skin. This tropical root delivers a smorgasbord of powerful health benefits. Turmeric powder mixed with oil can have a soothing effect when applied to rough skin. In combination with lime and salt pepper, turmeric can also be applied to bruises, sprains, wounds, and wounds that have become infected. 
Contraindications: Turmeric is extremely safe. It has been used in large quantities as a food with no adverse reactions. However, persons with symptoms from gallstones should avoid turmeric. Turmeric.s potential anti-clotting effect might cause problems with those with clotting disorders. Unusually large amount of turmeric consumption may result in stomach upset. Do not take Tumeric if you are pregnant. FDA lists turmeric as an herb that is normally considered safe.

 

Study
References:

  • C.F.H.Su, R. Horvat and G. Jilani, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1982, 30, 290-292.
  • G. Jilani and R.C. Saxena, Journal of Economic Entomology, 1990, Vol. 83(2), 629-634.
  • Pharmacology of Curcuma Longa: Ammon HP, Wahi MA Department of Pharmacology, Eberhard-Karls-Universitat Tubingen, Federal Republic of Germany.




English Names: Thyme-Leafed Gratiola Botanical Names: Bacopa Monnieri
Family: Scrophulariaceae Parts Used: The entire plant constitutes well-known drug Brahmi.
Habitat: Brahmi is a small creeping herb commonly found growing in marshy areas throughout India. It grows readily in damp areas.

 

Constituents:Alkaloids, Brahmains & Herpestine; and a Sapinin "Hersaponin". Alkaloids resemble strychnine in therapeutic action but are less toxic.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Clinical trials on human volunteers that began in 1993 in India have not found any adverse effects. The herb is safe for use by healthy people of all ages. In India, Brahmi tea is given to infants starting in their first month of the life to encourage optimal mental development. Brahmi, like Gingko, is also used by adults who seek better mental functioning.

 

Study
References:

  • Perrig WJ, et al. The relation between antioxidants and memory performance in the old and very old. J. Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45:718-24.
  • Lohr JB, Browning JA. Free radical involvement in Neuropsychiatric Illnesses. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31: 159-65.
  • 009; Socci DJ, et al. Chronic antioxidant treatment improves the cognitive performance of aged rats. Brain Res 1995; 693:88-94.
  • Kamat JP, et al. Tocotrienols from palm oil as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in rat brain mitochondria. Neurosci Lett 1995; 195:179-82.
  • De Deyn PP, et al. Superoxide dismutase activity in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia and some other neurological disorders. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc disord 1998; 12:26-32.
  • Noroozi M, et al. Effects of flavonoids and vitamin C on oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1210-8.
  • Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Grahmi) extract on avoidance responses in the rat. J. Ethnopharmacol 1982;5:205-14
  • Tripathi YB, et al. Bacopa monniera Linn. as an antioxidant: Mechanism of action.




English Names: Three-leaf caper Botanical Names: Crataeva Nurvala ,Crataeva religosa
Family: Parts Used: Bark
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: White clover, Red clover Botanical Names: Trifolium alexandrianum
Family: Parts Used: Ariel plant. Extract
Habitat: Native to north Atlantic and central Europe, the Mediterranean region, Balkans, Asia Minor, Iran, India, Himalayas, Russia from Arctic south to east Siberia, Caucasus, and the Far East. It spread to England ca 1650 and was carried to America by British colonists (Taylor and Smith, 1981). Widely introduced and cultivated.

 

Constituents:Trifolium alexandrianum 500 mg. * ratio: 85:1

 

Nature's richest source of-Isoflavones plant estrogens: The extract contains more then 50% protiens, calcium, iron and natural plant estrogens.

Trifolium alexandrianum which is rich in Proteins,calcium, Iron, Isoflavone Plant Estrogens in natural form. Plant estrogen are closed to human estrogens and body accept them as such. Supplement the body's own decreasing Estrogen supply associated with mid life. Dietary Supplement for women interested in replenishing and maintaining healthy Estrogen levels before and during mid life may be taken with other supplement and prescription.


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No serious adverse side effects from trifolium have been reported in humans. However, infertility has been noted in grazing animals that consume large amounts of trifolium. The use of trifolium is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

 

Study
References:

  • Adlercreutz H, Bannwart C, Wahala K, et al. Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol. 1993;44(2):147-153.
  • Baber R, Bligh PC, Fulcher G, Lieberman D, Nery L, Moreton T. The effect of an Isoflavone dietary supplement (P-081) on serum lipids, forearm bone density & endometrial thickness in post menopausal women [abstract]. Menopause. 1999a;6:326.
  • Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, Kelly GE, West L. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric. 1999b;2(2):85-92.
  • Cassady JM, Zennie TM, Young-Heum C, Ferin MA, Portuondo NE, Baird WM. Use of a mammalian cell culture benzo(a)pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogens from natural products: Inhibition of metabolism by biochanin A, an isoflavone from Trifolium pratense L. Cancer Res. 1988;48:6257-6261.
  • Duke JA. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press; 1992:603-605.
  • Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, Inc.; 1985:488-489.
  • Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.
  • Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Boston, Mass: Element Books Limited; 1990:227.
  • Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 2000;152(1):143-147.
  • Jeri AR. The effect of isoflavones phytoestrogens in relieving hot flushes in Peruvian postmenopausal women. Paper presented at: 9th International Menopause Society World Congress on the Menopause; October 20, 1999; Yokahama, Japan.
  • Kuhn MA, Winston D. Herbal Therapy and Supplements. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott; 2001:273-277.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A. Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press LLC; 1997: 117.
  • Nachtigall LE. Isoflavones in the management of menopause. Journal of the British Menopause Society. 2001;Supplement S1:8-12.
  • Nestel PJ, Pomeroy S, Kay S, et al. Isoflavones from red clover improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(3):895-898.
  • North American Menopause Society (NAMS). The role of isoflavones in menopausal health: consensus opinion of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2000;7(4):215-229.
  • Pedersen M. Nutritional Herbology A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, Ind: Wendell W. Whitman Company; 1994;144-145.
  • Stephens FO. Phytoestrogens and prostate cancer: possible preventive role. MJA. 1997;167:138-140.
  • Woodside JV, Campbell MJ. Isoflavones and breast cancer. Journal of the British Menopause Society. 2001;Supplement S1:17-21.
  • Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217(3):369-378.




English Names: Gum Acacia Botanical Names: Acacia Arabica
Family: Parts Used: Gum of the tree
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Ashwagandha, Winter Cherry Botanical Names: Withania Somnifera
Family: Solanaceae Parts Used: Root
Habitat: Ashwagandha is a small shrub that grows to 1.5 meters tall. It is found in dry areas of India and Africa.

 

Constituents:Withaferin, Withanolides, Withanine, sitoindosides, Somniferine, Alkaloids and Ethanolides. Withanolides are believed to account for the multiple medicinal application of Ashwagandha. It stimulates the activation of immune system cells such a lymphocytes. It inhibits inflammation and improves memory. Taken together, these actions support the traditional reputation of Ashwagandha as a tonic or adaptogen.

 


Energetics: Indications: Ashwagandha is sometimes referred to as Indian Ginseng (see Study below). It has rejuvenative properties that produce energy, which in turn helps the body to calm down and sleep. Thus it helps the body address a stress-related condition rather than masking it with sedatives. Recent research points out that Ashwagandha may be the best herb to take to maintain normal adrenal levels. Many people suffer from adrenal exhaustion and are misdiagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or simply leave the doctors office without a clear understanding as to why they constantly feel so exhausted and stressed. Caffeine, nicotine, processed foods and processed sugar all take their toll on the adrenal glands and leave the victim fatigued, depressed and often bewildered as to what to do with themselves. Ashwagandha helps the adrenals recover quickly to a balanced state, assuming the offending habits are discontinued. One of the special properties of Ashwagandha is that it will enhance Ojas. In Sanskrit, Ojas literally means "vigor" and according to Ayurvedic theory, is the most subtle, refined level of the physical body and, in fact, is its essential energy. Ojas is the sap of one's life energy and is the end result of healthy food which is properly digested. It is responsible for a healthy immune system, reproductive processes, physical strength, lustrous complexion, clarity of mind and sense of well-being. It allows consciousness to flow within the body. With decreased ojas, we are less in touch with ourselves and more prone to weakness, fatigue, disease and to experiencing a sense of disharmony. Ojas depletion can be caused by stress, which triggers stress-fighting hormones and free radicals that in turn cause degeneration of the immune and other physiological systems. This stress-induced reaction can open the way for illness and disease. Ashwagandha is known to protect the body from these stress-related weaknesses and illnesses by specializing in the building of ojas and rejuvenating the body, thus maintaining a healthy balance of physical energies. Ashwagandha can also be a natural anabolic training aid and its use is becoming popular in sports and athletics. When you train hard, you walk a very fine line between overtraining and training just enough. Even in perfect circumstances, training by itself is a stress on the body. To get the maximum performance from your muscles, you require just the right amount of training coupled with appropriate rest and recovery periods. Overtraining means too much cortisol which leads to the consumption of muscle protein by the body and thus performance suffers. Endurance athletes who train heavily, such as long-distance runners and cyclists, are very prone to infections, as excess cortisol produced in response to the heavy training load suppresses the immune system. It can also lead to muscle and tendon tears because the muscles are weakened due to protein loss under the influence of cortisol. With its musclepreserving qualities, Ashwagandha is the perfect natural anabolic training aid for the serious athlete. 
Contraindications: Safe for human and animal use. This herb has been used safely by children in India and even by pregnant women. When taken in small quantities as a tonic. During lactation it increases the flow of mother’s milk.

 

No side effects have been reported with Ashwagandha.

According to Ayurveda herbs are best taken in combination with other herbs or vitamins or minerals in order to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of other and to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the that of the other.

Caution: According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

Study
References:

  • J. Ethnopharmacol 1994 Dec., 44(3):131-5
  • A comparative pharmacological investigation of Ashwagandha and Ginseng.
  • Grandhi A, Mujumdar AM, Patwardhan B.
  • Indian Drugs Research Association, Pune.




English Names: Areca nut, Betel nut, Pinag Botanical Names: Areca catechu
Family: Palmae Parts Used: Seed
Habitat: Cultivated through out tropical India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Asafoetida Botanical Names: Ferula Asafoetida Linn
Family: Parts Used: Gum resin of the plant.
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: According to Ayurveda, Herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

 

Study
References


English Names: Black Pepper Botanical Names: Piper Nigrum
Family: Piperaceae Parts Used: Fruits
Habitat: Constituents:Black pepper's aromatic, slightly musty odor comes from the volatile oils found largely in the flesh and skin; Black Pepper's pungent bite comes from the Alkaloids-piperine and Piperidine-and resins found mostly in the seeds. The oils go into perfumes and flavorings.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Sweet Basil Botanical Names: Ocimum Basilicum
Family: Labiatae Parts Used: Herbs and seeds
Habitat: Indigenous to India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Boswellia Botanical Names: Boswellia Serrata
Family: Parts Used: When the tree trunk is tapped, a gummy oleoresin is exuded. A purified extract of this resin is used in modern herbal preparations.
Habitat: It is moderate to large branching trees found in India, strips of bark peeled away yielding gummy oleoresin, contains Oil, Terpenoids and Gum. Boswellic acid is isolated from Gumresin of Boswellia Serrata and identifies as active principle.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Boswellia is the premier Ayurvedic herb in helping the body maintain a healthy and positive inflammation response. It works very well yet avoids all of the irritation associated with many conventional pain relievers. In traditional Ayurveda, Boswellia is believed to suppress the proliferating tissue found in the inflamed areas and also supports healthy connective tissue. The mechanism is similar to the action of non-steroidal groups of anti-arthritic drugs (such as NSAIDSs) with no side effects, gastric irritation or ulcerogenic activity. Boswellia has also been found to maintain healthy blood supply to the joints. Recent studies have shown that arthritic conditions often are accompanied by some form of a virus. It is often recommended to take Neem along with Boswellia or Joint Support to help maintain healthy blood-toxin levels. Neem is generally recommended to be taken over a course of two to three months. We offer Boswellia as a single herb or in our Joint Support formula which contains Ashwagandha and Shilajit as well as other supportive herbs. According to Ayurveda many kinds of diseases originate in the colon due to a build-up of toxins known as "ama". These toxins move from the colon into the bloodstream and then into the joints, which is a contributing factor in the pain associated with arthritis. The best way to reverse this process is to remove the toxins from the joints and eliminate them from the body. It is therefore critical to keep the colon healthy by eating properly and exercising. Herbal supplements and formulas area a great way to maintain a healthy colon, as it is extremely effective in helping the body and specifically the colon to re-balance itself. In addition to adding herbs to one's diet, one should be very careful to eat a healthy and balanced diet as well as exercising regularly to re-balance the body. Ayurveda also recommends the use of herbal massage oils to cool and soothe the inflamed joints and muscles. Some very effective oils for arthritic conditions include Maha Vishgarba Oil, Muscle and Joint Therapy (Vata Oil), and Sesame and Mustard Oils. Ayurveda suggest that massage oils be used on a daily basis and can be applied directly to the affected area, or used in a full body massage. The oils can also be added to the bath water. This a very effective way of assimilating the herbs into the entire body. All of our oils are organic, cold-pressed and of the highest quality. 
Contraindications: According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other. Toxicity studies of Boswellia in rats and primates showed no pathological changes in Heamotological parameters at doses of up to 1000 mg/Kg. The LD50 was established more than 2 gm/kg.

 

Study
References


English Names: Chanca Piedra, Quebra Pedra Botanical Names: Phyllanthus Niruri
Family: Euphorbiaceae Parts Used: Plant
Habitat: Chanca piedra is a small erect annual herb growing up to 30 to 40 centimeters in height and is indigenous to the rainforests in the Amazon and other tropical areas including the Bahamas, southern India and China.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Bromelain Botanical Names: Bromelain (Group of Proteolytic enzymes)
Family: Parts Used: Stems of Pineapples
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

 

Study
References


English Names: Bitter Gourdin, Bitter melon Botanical Names: Momordica Charantia
Family: Parts Used: Fruits, Seeds
Habitat: This climbing plant is cultivated everywhere in India for its fruit.

 

Constituents:Lectins, Charantin and Momordcine.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications:

High doses may produce termination of pregnancy, stomach ache.

According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

 

Study
References


English Names: Barberry Botanical Names: Berberis Aristata
Family: European barberry, Jaundice berry, Pepperidge, Pepperidge Bush, Sowberry Parts Used: Bark of roots.
Habitat: Constituents:Alkaloids of the isoquinoline type, Mainly berberine, Berbamine and derivatives, Berberrubine, Bervulcine, Columbamine, Isotetrandrine, Jatrorrhizine, Magnoflorine, Oxycanthine and Vulvracine o Miscellaneous, including Chelidonic acid, resin, tannin etc.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Avoid during pregnancy.

 

Study
References


English Names: Black Salt Botanical Names: Black Salt
Family: Parts Used: 
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Beleric Myrobalan Botanical Names: Terminalia belerica
Family: Parts Used: Fruits
Habitat: This herb, which is an important Ayurvedic herb, is a tree found throughout the Indian forests and plains.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Velvet Bean, Cowhage, Cow-itch, Buffalo bean Botanical Names: Mucuna pruriens
Family: Parts Used: Seeds, Fruits
Habitat: M. pruriens is an herbaceous twining annual. The leaves are trifoliate; the leaflets, broadly ovate, ellipticor thomboid ovate and unequal at the base; the flowers, purple and in axillary, pendulous racemes, the pods, curved, longitudinally ribbed, turgid and densely clothed with persistent pale brown or gray, irritant bristles; the seeds, black, 4-6 in a pod and avoid. This Ayurvedic herb is an annual climbing shrub common in the tropics of India; legumes are eaten as a vegetable.

 

Constituents:M. prurita has been found to contain L-DOPA, 40 mg/g of the plant. (Parikh et al, Indian Drugs, 1990, 27, 353; Chem Abstr, 1993, 119, 234161, 245571). The plant/seeds contain the bioactive alkaloids mucunine, mucunadine, mucuadinine, pruriendine and nicotine, besides B-sitosterol, glutathione, lecithin, oils, venolic and gallic acids. The seeds with seed coat showed the presence of a number of bioactive substances including tryptamine, alkylamines, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, cardenolides, etc. 
Energetics: Indications: Toasted ground seeds can be used as a coffee substitute (RVM). Mucuna pruriens, commonly known as velvet bean or cow itch, is a plant indigenous to India. Mucuna pruriens, recognized as an aphrodisiac in Ayurveda, has been shown to maintain and normalize testosterone levels, which may lead to deposition of protein in the muscles and increased muscle mass and strength. 
Contraindications: Do not use when congested.

 

Adverse effects were mild and were mainly gastro-intestinal in nature. No adverse effects were seen in clinical laboratory reports (lbid, 1995).

Study
References:

  • Sihna, J Res Educ Indian med, 1992, 11(1), 15, Goyal, J Econ Taxon Bot, 1991, 15, 677.
  • Manyam, B.V., et al. (1995) J. of alternative and Comp. Med., 1(3) 249-255.
  • Amin, K.M.Y. (1996) Fitoterapia, 67: 53-58.
  • Bhasin, S., et al. (1996) new England J. of Med., 335, 1-7.
  • Singh, R.H. et al. (1989) J. Res. ayur. Siddha, 1(1): 1-6.




English Names: Centratherum Anthelminticum Botanical Names: Centratherum Anthelminticum
Family: Parts Used: Seeds
Habitat: Throughout India up to 5500 feet. In the Himalayas and often cultivated in villages.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Cumin seed Botanical Names: Cuminum cyminum
Family: Parts Used: Seeds
Habitat: Cultivated throughout India except Bengal and Assam. Main areas are the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Dragon's Blood Botanical Names: Daemonorops, Draco
Family: Palmae, Origin, Sumatra, S.Borneo and Penang Parts Used: Resin obtained from the fruits
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: East Indian Globe Thistle Botanical Names: Sphaeranthus Hirtus
Family: Compositae Parts Used: Flowers
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Fumitory Botanical Names: Fumaria officinalis
Family: Fumariaceae Parts Used: 
Habitat: This plant was not indigenous to India but it was imported from Persia.

 

Constituents:The most prominent Constituents of fumitory are an alkaloid fumarine, fumaric acid, and considerable amounts of inorganic matter, especially potassium salts.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Fenugreek Botanical Names: Trigonella Foenum Graecum
Family: Parts Used: Dried seeds
Habitat: Lequminosae. This all-season herb is found in wild and extensively cultivated in India. It has triplets or oval leaflets. It blooms yellow white flowers in the summer and has aromatic seeds. Used through the ages by Indians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans for medicinal and culinary purposes.

 

Constituents:The scented seeds contain Vitamin A, B1, C, Iron and Minerals.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Gum of silk cotton tree Botanical Names: Bombax Malabaricum
Family: Parts Used: Gum resin
Habitat: Throughout the hottest forest regions of India.

 

Constituents:Contains Tannic and Gallic acid.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Ginger Botanical Names: Zingiber Officinale
Family: Zingiberaceae Parts Used: Rhizome (Underground Stem), Roots
Habitat: Ginger is a perennial plant that grows in India, China, Mexico, and several other countries.

 

Constituents:The dried rhizome of ginger contains approximately 1-4% volatile oils. These are the medically active Constituents of ginger, they are also responsible for ginger’s characteristic odor and taste. The aromatic principles include Zingiberene and Bisabolene, while the pungent principles are known as Ginerols and Shogaols. 
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Garlic Botanical Names: Allium Sativum
Family: Parts Used: Bulb and Oil
Habitat: Cultivated all over India, garlic is closely related to onion and chives. The largest commercial garlic production is in Central California.

 

Constituents:Garlic contains many bioactive substances, including Allicin, Ajoene, Gamma-Glutamylcysteine (and other sulfur-containing compounds), Vitamins, Minerals, Amino acids, and Nucleic acids. 
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Most people enjoy garlic. However, some individuals who are sensitive to it may experience heartburn and flatulence. Because of garlic’s Anticlotting properties, persons taking anticoagulant drugs should check with their nutritionally oriented doctor before taking garlic. Those scheduled for surgery should inform their surgeon if they are taking garlic supplements. There are no known contra-indications to the use of garlic during pregnancy and lactation.

 

No significant side effects information is available so far.

Study
References


English Names: Garcinia Cambogia Botanical Names: Garcinia Cambogia
Family: Parts Used: Fruit
Habitat: A Fruiting tree grows in evergreen forests in Southern India and Pattani Southern Thailand.

 

Constituents:The fruit of the tree contain H.C.A. (Hydroxy Citric Acid) which comes in extract is the active constituent/principal.

 


Energetics: Indications: When the body’s energy needs are less than the daily calorie intake, the body produces excess glucose. This glucose is then converted into glycogen, which is stored for future conversion into energy in both the liver and muscles. People gain weight, or store energy as fat, after the body’s capacity for glycogen storage is reached. At this point, the excessive calories become stored in fat cells. In traditional Ayurveda, Garcinia Cambogia is used to maintain healthy weight, appetite, and fat storage levels in the body. In conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise program, Citrin can help promote a healthy synthesis of energy and carbohydrates. 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Gymnema Sylvestre "Sugar Destroyer" Botanical Names: Gymnema Sylvestre
Family: Parts Used: Leaves
Habitat: A climbing plant common in Central and Southern India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Gymnema Sylvestre is one of the most famous Ayurvedic herbs for promoting and maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. It is called the Gurmar or the “sugar destroyer” in Ayurveda, because of its ability to block sweet taste. Gymnema should be considered part of your diet if you’re struggling to maintain and balance blood sugar levels. 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Gulancha Tinospora Botanical Names: Tribulis Terrestris
Family: Parts Used: Fruit
Habitat: This herb is a trailing plant common in sandy soil throughout India at 11,000 ft. in Kashmir.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Do not take if dehydrated. No other significant information regarding safety is available.

 

Study
References


English Names: Tinospora Cordifolia, Indian Tinospora, Guduchi Botanical Names: Tinospora Cordifolia
Family: Parts Used: Stems
Habitat: Menispermaceae. A large, glabrous deciduous climbing shrub. The stems are rather succulent with long filiform fleshy aerial roots form the branches. The bark is gray brown and watery. The leaves are membranous and cordate. The flowers small and greenish yellow. This herb is found throughout tropical India ascending to a height of 300 mts.

 

Constituents:Tinsporine, Tinosporide, Tinosporaside, Cordifolide, Cordifol, Heptaconsanol, Clerodane furano diterpene, Diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, columbin and B-Sitosterol.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Golden shower Botanical Names: Cassia Fistula
Family: Parts Used: Pods
Habitat: Common throughout India and Burma.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Horse gram Botanical Names: Dolichos Biflorus
Family: Parts Used: seeds
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Indian Bedellium Tree, Gum Gugal Botanical Names: Commiphora Mukul
Family: Parts Used: Gum Resin
Habitat: Guggul is spiny shrub or small tree with many branches, usually growing two or three meter high, and found in the arid, rocky tracts of Rajasthan, Gujrat and Kamatka in India. A healthy tree yields 250-500 grams of resin in one season, and Guggul plants typically begin yielding resin after five years.

 

Commiphora Mukul ranges from a woody shrub to a small tree, with spirally ascending branches. Leaves 1-3 foliate, rhomboid to avate in shape, irregularly toothed edges. Flowers are small, from brown to pink in color and are unisexual. It’s fruit is red and oval in shape. The tree grows in rocky and rough terrain in warm and semiarid areas of India. It is found on the slopes of hills and foothills. The oleoresin from Commiphora Mukul has been mentioned in the ancient Indian texts Athavaveda, and in the early medical texts of Charaka, Sushuta, the Samhitas and Nighantus which are over a thousand years old. Textbooks of Ayurvedic Medicine distinguish between fresh and old varieties of Guggul.

Constituents:The National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India, in collaboration with the Central Drug Research Institute of India, began a detailed chemical Study of the Hypocholesterolemic/Hypolipidemic activity of Guggul. 
Energetics: Indications: Guggul is a well known Ayurvedic herb which normailizes lipid metabolism, and regulates healthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, it maintains the body's ability to burn excess fat. It does this safely, effectively, and without the serious side effects that often accompany western drugs. 
Contraindications: Purified Guggul may be taken for a long time without ill effect.

 

Study
References:

  • Raghunathan, K. and R. Mittra: Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New Delhi (1982).
  • Bose, S. and K. C. Gupta: Ind. J. Chem. 2:57 (1964).
  • Bose, S. and K.C. Gupta: Ind. J. Chem. 2:156 (1964).
  • Patil, N.D. et al.: Tetrahedron *:2341 (1972)
  • Satyavat, G.V.: Effect of an indigenous drug on disorders of lipid metabolism with special reference to arteriosclerosis and obesity. Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine, BHU, Varanasi (1968).
  • Ram P. Rastogi and B.N. Mehrotra: Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. 3 Central Drug Research Institute, Lunow, India.
  • Duwiejua M. Zeitlin IJ, Waterman PG, Chapman J, Mhango GJ, Provan GJ.: Anti-inflammatory activity of resins from some species of the plant Family Burseraceae. Planta Med 1993, Feb;59 (1):12-16.
  • Lata S. Saxena KK, Bhasin V, Saxena RS, Kumar A, Srivastava VK.: Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis - a comparative evaluation. Department of Pharmacology, L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Sarbhoy AK, Varshney JL, Maheshwari ML, Saxena DB.: Efficacy of some essential oils and their Constituents on few ubiquitous molds. Zentalbl Bakteriol [naturwiss] 1978; 133 (7-8): 723-725.




English Names: Indian Sarsaparilla Botanical Names: Hemidesmus Indicus
Family: Parts Used: Root
Habitat: Climbing Twiner Plant found in Central and Southern India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Indian Gooseberry Botanical Names: Emblica Officinalis, Phyllanthus Emblica
Family: Euphorbiaceae Parts Used: Dried fruit, Ripe Fruit, Seed, Leaves, Root, Bark, Flowers.
Habitat: A deciduous tree with exfoliating bark.

 

Constituents:Amla contains the highest amount of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid), Phyllembin, Phyllemblic acid, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid in natural form and Cytokin like substance identified as Zeatin, Z riboside, Z nucleotide, Tannins 30%.

 


Energetics: Indications: Amla is the most concentrated form of Vitamin C in the entire plant kingdom, containing up to 720 mg/100g of fresh pulp and 921 mg/100cc of pressed juice. This is approximately 20 times the vitamin C content of an orange. It is a very potent form of Vitamin C and yet is easily assimilated by the human body. The Vitamin C in the Amalaki fruit is bonded with tannins that protect it from being destroyed by heat or light. Amla promotes and maintains healthy digestion, which in turn regulates the absorption of food by increasing the fire (know as "Agni" in Ayurveda) in the stomach, without creating any excess stomach acids. 
Contraindications: No side effects have been noted so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Indian Kino Tree, Malabar Kino Botanical Names: Pterocarpus Marsupium
Family: Parts Used: Gum Resin and Heartwood
Habitat: Lequminosae, found commonly in hilly regions of central and southern India & Ceylon. A moderate to large deciduous tree with a stout crooked stem and widely spreading branches, thick bark, yellowish gray and scaly. The older trees exude a blood red gum resin. The leaves are 15-23 cms. Long, bipinnately compound, leaflets are oblong, the flowers occur in large panicles, fruit pods 2.5-5 cms., orbicular, flat winged.

 

Constituents:Liquiritigenin and Isoliuiritigenin.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Jambul, Syzygium Cumini, Java Plum, Syzygium Jambolana Botanical Names: Engenia Jambolana
Family: Parts Used: Fruits, dried seeds and bark
Habitat: A tree 20-30 ft. high with long, narrow, peach-like Leaves. Flowers, green-yellow in terminal bunches, blooming in July. Fruit red to black. Seeds oval 0.25 -0.5 inches long and 1/5inch round. It is found throughout the planes from the Himalayas to South India.

 

Constituents:Seeds contain a Glucoside Jamboline, a Phenolic substance called ellagic acid, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, chlorophyll, fat, resin, gallic acid, albumen, etc.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far. According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

 

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References


English Names: Kamarkas, Bengal Kino and Flame-of-the-forest Botanical Names: Butea Frondosa
Family: Papilonaceae Parts Used: Gum
Habitat: Constituents:Gum contains Kino tannic and gallic acids, 50% soluble mucilage and ash to person. Gum is mild astringent useful in Phthisis and Hemorrhage from the stomach and bladder as Anthelmintic.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Katuka, Kutki, Katki Botanical Names: Picrorrhiza Kurroa
Family: Scrophulariaceae Parts Used: Dried Rhizome
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is found in the western Himalayas from Kashmir in India to Sikkim.

 

Constituents:Iridoid glycosides (picrosides I, II, III and kutkoside) Cucurbitacin glycosides (bitterness of root).

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Licorice Botanical Names: Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Family: Lequminosae Parts Used: Rhizome, Root
Habitat: Balauchistan, Sub Himalayan tracts.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study: BECAUSE IT CONTAINS ADRENAL CORTICAL HORMONES, IT IS USEFUL FOR ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY.

 


References


English Names: Long pepper Botanical Names: Piper Longum
Family: Parts Used: Fruits
Habitat: It is a slender aromatic climber with perennial woody roots occuring in the hotter parts of India western coasts, central himalayas to assam and lower hills of Bengal.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Manna Botanical Names: Tamarix Articulata or Tamarix Gallica
Family: Tamaricaceae Parts Used: Galls (powder of galls)
Habitat: In India it is found in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Saffron Botanical Names: Crocus Sativus
Family: Parts Used: Dried stigmas and tops of styles of crocus staivus flower
Habitat: An autumnal dwarf herb cultivated in Kashmir, India.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No significant information regarding adverse side effects of this herb is available so far.

 

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References


English Names: Shellac or Lac Botanical Names: Laccifer Lacca
Family: Lacciferidae Parts Used: 
Habitat: India and Thailand are the main areas in the world where lac is cultivated. Over 90% of Indian lac comes from the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Orissa. Lac insects thrive on certain trees and the principal lac host trees in India are Palas, Kusum and Ber. India exports different grades of handmade and machine made shellac as well as a limited quantity of refuse lac, namely kiri, molamma, etc.

 

Lac production was introduced from India to Thailand where the rain-tree is the principal lac host. Thailand exports sticklac and seedlac.

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Indian Gall Nut, Chebulic Myrobalan Botanical Names: Terminalia Chebula, Black Myrobalan
Family: Parts Used: Fruit, Bark.
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is a tree that grows in many parts of India. Harar is one of the herbs in Ayurvedic combination of three herbs called "Triphala".

 

Haritaki is a moderate or large deciduous tree, attaining 25-30 m in height. Leaf buds, branches and youngest leaves are covered with soft, shining rust coloured hairs. Leaves 7-20 cm, Glabrous, Opposite, Elliptic-oblong, Rounded, Acute apex. Flowers bisexual, white or yellow with an offensive smell. Fruit is a Drupe, pendulous, 2-4 cm long, Obovoid from a broad base, Glabrous, Sribbed, when dry, yellowish green, Bark 6 mm thick, dark brown, many generally shallow vertical cracks.

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Do not take this herb if you are pregnant or if you are suffering from dehydration, severe exhaustion, and emaciation.

 

Study
References


English Names: Mango Botanical Names: Mangifera Indica
Family: Parts Used: Dried pulp
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Muskroot Botanical Names: Nardostachys jatamansi
Family: Parts Used: Rhizome, Roots
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is found in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim. It grows in Himalayas at altitudes from 9,000-17,000feet.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No side effects have been noted so far.

 

Study
References


English Names: Nutmeg Botanical Names: Myristica Fragrans
Family: Parts Used: Dried Seeds
Habitat: This plant is native of Moluccas, now cultivated in many tropical countries. In India it is grown in Madras and Southern India State or where the climate is sufficiently hot and moist.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Neem Botanical Names: Azadirachta Indica
Family: Parts Used: All parts of the plant yield b -Sitosterol
Habitat: A large evergreen tropical tree, native to India and Burma.

 

Constituents:Nimbin, Nimbinin and Nimbidin

 


Energetics: Indications: In India the Neem Tree is known as the village pharmacy because of its many diverse uses. We recommend that Neem be taken with Boswellia or Joint Support . It is the herb of choice for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails. Neem posesses similar benefits of Echinacea & Goldenseal. In Ayurveda, Neem is said to purify the blood. According to Ayurvedic physicians Neem is called "Sarva Roga Nivarini": The One That Can Cure All Ailments. Even Gandhi revered Neem and called for additional scientific investigation into the powerful herb as part of his program to revitalize Indian traditions. 
Contraindications: No significant side effects information is available so far.

 

Continuous use for more than a month is not advisable unless it is used with butter and honey or mixed and blended with other herbs (plants).

Study
References


English Names: Oak Galls Botanical Names: Quercus Infectoria
Family: Cupuliferae Parts Used: Galls
Habitat: It is a native of Greece, Asia, Syria and Persia.

 

Constituents:The principal chemical Constituents of galls is Tannin (Gallo - Tannic acid) 50 to 70% and about 3% of Gallic acid. Action: Galls are powerfully Astringent and Styptic. Though Oak galls contains tannic acid, it would be an error, however, to administer pure tannic acid in place of the entire drug. Tannic acid is absorbed in the small intestine, whereas it is protective by Cellulose in the drugs containing tannic acids so that it reaches the lower intestinal sections unchanged. It unfolds its action only after absorption into the lymp- stream, influencing and contracting the smooth Musculature.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Oyster Shell Botanical Names: Ostrea Edulis
Family: Parts Used: 
Habitat: It is a shell found in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean courses. It has a small hollow, ovate excavation in which the animal with a soft fleshy suborbicuilar body is enclosed. The shell has a sort of hinge at one end and opens into two halves. Two halves, one shallow and the other deep, which is found adhering to the rock.

 

The shell is hard, externally gray or dark brown and rough and marked with lateral undulated streaks and internally white, smooth and shining.

Constituents:It contains Calcium Carbonate 85 to 95 %, Phosphate and sulfate of calcium and magnesium, oxide of iron, alumina and silica.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Pomegranate, Granada (Spanish), Grenade (French). Botanical Names: Punica granatum
Family: Punicaceae, Punica proto-punica Parts Used: 
Habitat: One of the important centers of wild pomegranate in Himachal Pradesh is Darlaghat, which is located about 50 km from Shimla. The word Darlaghat literally means a pass or place of wild pomegranate-trees in India.

 

An erect deciduous spreading shrub or tree can be 8 to 10 meters high; stern, woody and thorny; girth of main stem, 48 to 78 cm; wood, very hard and light yellow; leaves shed in December, new light red leaves appear in the middle of March, new growth, very ornamental.

Fruit is globular, crowned by a persistent calyx, possessing a hard outer rind with a red tinge. Seeds are angular, with a fleshy aril which constitutes the edible part. Color varies from red to pinkish white.

Constituents:Elligatannins, Punicalgin, Pelletierine, Granatins, Pectins

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Prickly chaff flower, Rough Chaf Tree Botanical Names: Achyranthes aspera
Family: Parts Used: Whole plant
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Pearl, Chanca piedra, Quebra Pedra Botanical Names: Mytilus margaritiferus
Family: Mollusca Parts Used: Plant
Habitat: Pearl mussel has nearly a semicircular shell, greenish with out and omamented with the most beautiful nacre within.The nacre is employed in the arts and the fine pearls are produced from the extravasation of nacre.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Red Sandalwood, Red saunders Botanical Names: Pterocarpus Santalinus, Red saunders
Family: Lequminosae Parts Used: wood
Habitat: This is a lofty forest tree. The leaves are alternate, stalked, ternate, and rarely pinnate; the leaflets alternate, petiolate, the uppermost larger, ovate-roundish or oblong, entire, emarginate or retuse, smooth above, and hoary beneath; the stipules wanting. The flowers are yellow, with red veins, papilionaceous, and borne in axillary, simple or branched, erect racemes. Bracts none. Calyx brown and 5-cleft. Stamens 10, combined into a sheath, split down to the base on the upper side, and half-way down on the lower. The legume is roundish, long-stalked, and falcate upward, compressed, smooth, and keeled on the lower edge; the keel is membranous and undulated. Seed solitary (L.).

 

Constituents:The coloring principle of Red Saunders is santalic acid (santalin), discovered by Pelletier. It is a red, tasteless, and odorless, crystalline powder, insoluble in water, soluble in ether, with yellow color, and in alcohol, with blood-red color (L. Meyer. 1848). It likewise dissolves in alkalies and acetic acid, but not in essential oils. H. Weidel (1869) obtained a similar substance, santal (C8H6O3), by extracting the wood with boiling alkaline water, precipitating with hydrochloric acid, and recrystallizing from alcohol. The yield was 0.3 per cent. Cazeneuve and Hugounenq (Jahresb. der Pharm., 1887, p. 159; and 1889, p. 127) digested the powdered wood with milk of lime, extracted the coloring substance with ether, and crystallized from alcohol. Carbon disulfide differentiated the product obtained into insoluble pterocarpin (C20H16O6) and soluble homo-pterocarpin (C24H24O6). Both substances are probably orcin-derivatives (see Lacmus). A small amount of tannin is contained in red Saunders.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Red Coral, Parvara, Praval Botanical Names: Coralium Rubrum
Family: Polypi Parts Used: Purified, Calcinated powder Calcareous Shell or Skeleton
Habitat: Red Sea, Persian and Arabian Gulfs, Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean.

 

Constituents:Animal or organic matter 8%. Carbonate of Lime 83%. Magnesium Carbonate 3.5% and oxide of iron 4.5%. The red color is due to its containing irons.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Rasna, Inula racemosa Botanical Names: Pluchea Lanceolata
Family: Composite Parts Used: Leaves, Whole Plant
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Red Hogweed Botanical Names: Boerhavia diffusa
Family: Herb, root Parts Used: 
Habitat: This Ayurvedic herb is found throughout India. Growing to 70 centimeters in height. It has a large root system and produces yellow and white flowers. It can be found in many tropical and warm-climate countries.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Asparagus, Shatavari Botanical Names: Asparagus racemosus
Family: Liliaceae Parts Used: Root
Habitat: Shatavari, Asparagus racemosus, is a climbing plant which grows in low forest areas throughout India. A much branched spinus under-shrub with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent roots. The major Constituents of Asparagus plant are Shatavarins I-IV, Sistosterol, Asparagamine.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: Shatavari is also known as Asparagus racemosus. SHATAVARI is a cooling, calming, nourishing and purifying herb which has a special affinity with women though it is also excellent for men. SHATAVARI is known to maintain and nourish the female reproductive organs. For men it is a nutritive tonic similar to ginseng. Because Shatavari is a gentle herb which regulates growth, is a systemic tonic, and is calming, it is considered, along with Ashwagandha and Bhrami, to be excellent for people of all ages. In Ayurveda this amazing herb is known as the "Queen of Herbs" because it promotes love and devotion.
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Mineral Pitch and Shilajit Botanical Names: Asphaltum and Shilajit
Family: Parts Used: Oozing (an Ayurvedic mineral)
Habitat: Shilajit is obtained from rocks in the Himalayan region. It is a form of mineral that drips from the cracks of the rocks during hot weather. it is decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries before. The biotransformed plant matter is extruded from the rocks by geothermal pressures. it is collected in raw form for further purification. Walking high in the Himalayan mountains, a thick rich paste oozing out from the rocks in the towering cliffs is Shilajit. It increases the core energy responsible for sexual and spiritual power, the same force that is withered by stress and anxiety. The use of Shilajit for renewing vitality. As per Ayurveda Shilajit is hot bitter.

 

Constituents:The porous fulvic acid and humic acids in Shilajit carry herbal compounds deeply into the tissues of the body. These porous carrying cavities also hook toxins and escort them out of the body.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Do not use with high uric acid count or with febrile diseases.

 

Study
References


English Names: Siberian tea Botanical Names: Bergenia Ligulata
Family: Saxifragaceae Parts Used: Rhizome (root)
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Sensitive plant Botanical Names: Mimosa Pudica
Family: Mimosaceae Parts Used: Roots
Habitat: Roots have characteristic 6 to 8 layers of cork cells. The secondary cortex consists of thin-walled parenchyma filled with starch granules. Cells of the cortex contain both tannin and calcium oxalate crystals. These tannin-containing cells, starch granules, crystals of calcium-oxalate, cork cells and reticulate cells are the Constituents of the root.

 

Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


English Names: Senna Botanical Names: Cassia senna, Cassia angustifolia
Family: Parts Used: The leaves and pods
Habitat: Cassia senna is native to tropical Africa and cultivated in Egypt and the Sudan and elsewhere; Cassia angustifolia is native to India and cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan.

 

Constituents:Senna contains hydroxyanthracene glycosides known as sennosides. 
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: It is a safe laxative. It may cause griping for which the drug is to be used with ginger.

 

Study
References


English Names: Turmeric Botanical Names: Curcuma Longa
Family: Parts Used: Tubers and Rhizome
Habitat: Zingiberaceae, A native of India and Indonesia,Turmeric is a perennial with pulpy, orange, tuberous roots that grow to about two feet in length. The aerial parts, which reach three feet, include Large, lily-like leaves, a thick, squat, central flower spike, and funnel-shaped yellow flowers.

 

Constituents:Active constituent is curcumin. It has been shown to have a wide range of therapeutic effects. First, it protects against free radical damage because it is a strong antioxidant. It reduces inflammation. It accomplishes this by reducing histamine levels and by increasing production of natural cortisone by the adrenal glands. It protects the liver from a number of toxic compounds. It has been shown to reduce platelets from clumping together, which in turn, improves circulation and helps protect against atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have also shown cancer-preventing effects of curcumin. This may be due to its powerful antioxidant activity in the body. As a powerful antioxidant it has shown greater effects in preventing free radical damage compared to vitamin C, vitamin, E and superoxide dismutase.

 


Energetics: Indications: Turmeric has long been recognized in Ayurveda for its many healing properties. The botanical name for Turmeric is Curcuma longa. In Ayurveda, turmeric has been used internally as a tonic and blood purifier, and topically for maintaining and promoting healthy skin. This tropical root delivers a smorgasbord of powerful health benefits. Turmeric powder mixed with oil can have a soothing effect when applied to rough skin. In combination with lime and salt pepper, turmeric can also be applied to bruises, sprains, wounds, and wounds that have become infected. 
Contraindications: Turmeric is extremely safe. It has been used in large quantities as a food with no adverse reactions. However, persons with symptoms from gallstones should avoid turmeric. Turmeric’s potential anti-clotting effect might cause problems with those with clotting disorders. Unusually large amount of turmeric consumption may result in stomach upset. Do not take Tumeric if you are pregnant. FDA lists turmeric as a herb that is normally considered safe.

 

Study
References:

  • C.F.H.Su, R. Horvat and G. Jilani, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1982, 30, 290-292.
  • G. Jilani and R.C. Saxena, Journal of Economic Entomology, 1990, Vol. 83(2), 629-634.
  • Pharmacology of Curcuma Longa: Ammon HP, Wahi MA Department of Pharmacology, Eberhard-Karls-Universitat Tubingen, Federal Republic of Germany.




English Names: Thyme-Leafed Gratiola Botanical Names: Bacopa Monnieri
Family: Scrophulariaceae Parts Used: The entire plant constitutes well-known drug Brahmi.
Habitat: Brahmi is a small creeping herb commonly found growing in marshy areas throughout India. It grows readily in damp areas.

 

Constituents:Alkaloids, Brahmains & Herpestine; and a Sapinin "Hersaponin". Alkaloids resemble strychnine in therapeutic action but are less toxic.

 


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Clinical trials on human volunteers that began in 1993 in India have not found any adverse effects. The herb is safe for use by healthy people of all ages. In India, Brahmi tea is given to infants starting in their first month of the life to encourage optimal mental development. Brahmi, like Gingko, is also used by adults who seek better mental functioning.

 

Dosage: It is advisable to take Brahmi for at least three months for significant effect and thereafter adjust the dose to suit the individual. It is wise to treat the brain like a muscle - use or lose it. Regular, stimulating mental activities keep the brain sharp, just as a vigorous workout helps keep muscles fit and performing optimally. The brain is susceptible to dehydration, so drink plenty of clean, pure fluids as part of any brain nutrition program. Nutritional supplements that provide a mixture of vitamins and mineral as well as herbs such as Brahmi may prove efficacious to a brain power plan. Give any supplement program enough time to work before evaluation its effects: Based on the metabolic rate of brain cells, the benefits may not be noticed for at least 90 days.

Study
References:

  • Perrig WJ, et al. The relation between antioxidants and memory performance in the old and very old. J. Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45:718-24.
  • Lohr JB, Browning JA. Free radical involvement in Neuropsychiatric Illnesses. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31: 159-65.
  • 009; Socci DJ, et al. Chronic antioxidant treatment improves the cognitive performance of aged rats. Brain Res 1995; 693:88-94.
  • Kamat JP, et al. Tocotrienols from palm oil as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in rat brain mitochondria. Neurosci Lett 1995; 195:179-82.
  • De Deyn PP, et al. Superoxide dismutase activity in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia and some other neurological disorders. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc disord 1998; 12:26-32.
  • Noroozi M, et al. Effects of flavonoids and vitamin C on oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1210-8.
  • Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Grahmi) extract on avoidance responses in the rat. J. Ethnopharmacol 1982;5:205-14
  • Tripathi YB, et al. Bacopa monniera Linn. as an antioxidant: Mechanism of action.




English Names: Three-leaf caper Botanical Names: Crataeva Nurvala ,Crataeva religosa
Family: Parts Used: Bark
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics:

Demulcent, diuretic, antipyretic useful in Calculus affections, disorders of urinary organs.

Indications: 
Contraindications: Study:

The bark has anti-inflammatory activity The extract of varuna displays antibacterial activity against Shigella and Salmonella. It cures Chronic urinary infection and urinary electrolyte excretion. Varuna decoction reduces the urinary excretion of sodium and magnesium. It was also found to increase the 'spontaneous' passage of renal and bladder calculi. In patients with prostatic hypertrophy, varuna decoction increases the force of detrussor contrac- tion, reducing the volume of residual urine. This action, through which stagnation of urine is reduced, combined with its anti-inflammatory property, may explain the antiseptic action of varuna on the urinary tract.

In ayurvedic practice, varuna is used as a litholytic agent, in treating 'Kapha' and 'Vata' varieties of ashmari (calculi). It also clears crystalluria (sharkara). It is the drug of choice in all kapha disorders of the urinary tract, and in renal and bladder calculi. It is also used as a cholagogue, anti-helmintic and antiameobic in both intestinal and hepatic infestation. Its action as an anti-inflammatory agent is utilized in its use in deep-seated suppurative inflammations, in small. joint, diseases and in osteomyelitis. It is also used as an antipyretic.


References


English Names: White clover, Red clover Botanical Names: Trifolium alexandrianum
Family: Parts Used: Ariel plant. Extract
Habitat: Native to north Atlantic and central Europe, the Mediterranean region, Balkans, Asia Minor, Iran, India, Himalayas, Russia from Arctic south to east Siberia, Caucasus, and the Far East. It spread to England ca 1650 and was carried to America by British colonists (Taylor and Smith, 1981). Widely introduced and cultivated.

 

Constituents:Trifolium alexandrianum 500 mg. * ratio: 85:1

 

Nature's richest source of-Isoflavones plant estrogens: The extract contains more then 50% protiens, calcium, iron and natural plant estrogens.

Trifolium alexandrianum which is rich in Proteins,calcium, Iron, Isoflavone Plant Estrogens in natural form. Plant estrogen are closed to human estrogens and body accept them as such. Supplement the body's own decreasing Estrogen supply associated with mid life. Dietary Supplement for women interested in replenishing and maintaining healthy Estrogen levels before and during mid life may be taken with other supplement and prescription.


Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: No serious adverse side effects from trifolium have been reported in humans. However, infertility has been noted in grazing animals that consume large amounts of trifolium. The use of trifolium is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

 

Study
References:

  • Adlercreutz H, Bannwart C, Wahala K, et al. Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol. 1993;44(2):147-153.
  • Baber R, Bligh PC, Fulcher G, Lieberman D, Nery L, Moreton T. The effect of an Isoflavone dietary supplement (P-081) on serum lipids, forearm bone density & endometrial thickness in post menopausal women [abstract]. Menopause. 1999a;6:326.
  • Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, Kelly GE, West L. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric. 1999b;2(2):85-92.
  • Cassady JM, Zennie TM, Young-Heum C, Ferin MA, Portuondo NE, Baird WM. Use of a mammalian cell culture benzo(a)pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogens from natural products: Inhibition of metabolism by biochanin A, an isoflavone from Trifolium pratense L. Cancer Res. 1988;48:6257-6261.
  • Duke JA. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press; 1992:603-605.
  • Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, Inc.; 1985:488-489.
  • Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.
  • Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Boston, Mass: Element Books Limited; 1990:227.
  • Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 2000;152(1):143-147.
  • Jeri AR. The effect of isoflavones phytoestrogens in relieving hot flushes in Peruvian postmenopausal women. Paper presented at: 9th International Menopause Society World Congress on the Menopause; October 20, 1999; Yokahama, Japan.
  • Kuhn MA, Winston D. Herbal Therapy and Supplements. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott; 2001:273-277.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A. Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press LLC; 1997: 117.
  • Nachtigall LE. Isoflavones in the management of menopause. Journal of the British Menopause Society. 2001;Supplement S1:8-12.
  • Nestel PJ, Pomeroy S, Kay S, et al. Isoflavones from red clover improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(3):895-898.
  • North American Menopause Society (NAMS). The role of isoflavones in menopausal health: consensus opinion of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2000;7(4):215-229.
  • Pedersen M. Nutritional Herbology A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, Ind: Wendell W. Whitman Company; 1994;144-145.
  • Stephens FO. Phytoestrogens and prostate cancer: possible preventive role. MJA. 1997;167:138-140.
  • Woodside JV, Campbell MJ. Isoflavones and breast cancer. Journal of the British Menopause Society. 2001;Supplement S1:17-21.
  • Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217(3):369-378.




English Names: Gum Acacia Botanical Names: Acacia Arabica
Family: Parts Used: Gum of the tree
Habitat: Constituents:
Energetics: Indications: 
Contraindications: Study
References


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